Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

176 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do the structures of the cells in the human body differ?
Size and Shape
What is the outermost layer of a cell called?
Cell Membrane
Where are most living substances contained within a cell?
Which part of a cell carries vital DNA information to newly forming cells
Which part is considered as the "brain" of the cell?
When does the life cycle of a cell begin and end?
From when it is formed till it reproduces
How many general processes are involved in the cell life cycle?
Mitosis,cytoplasmic division, interfase, cell differentation
What is the dividing of a cell's nucleus called?
In which phase of mitosis do chromosomes line up in an orderly fashion and prepare to divide?
In which phase of mitosis does cytoplasmic division begin?
What are the four general types of tissue found in the body?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous
Where can epithelial tissue be found?
Covering all body surfaces inside and out
What are the three types of muscle tissue
Skeletal, Cardiac and Smooth
What is the outermost layer of the epidermis
Stratum Corneum
What layer of the skin contains blood vessels, sweat glands, and hair follicles
Hair shafts are composed mainly of what type of cells?
Dead epidermal cells
What type of sweat gland is usually connected to hair follicles?
Apocrine Glands
What type of glands secretes sebum?
Sebaceous Glands
What is one function of the integumentary system?
One of the following: body temperature regulation, protection, and external physical characteristics
When external temperatures are high, what do blood vessels in the skin do?Why?
Dilate to permit increase in blood-flow and stimulate sweating
What substance is produced in the deepest layer of the epidermis to protect the skin against damage caused by ultraviolet rays from the sun?
How does aging affect the skin?
Diminishes elasticity and Strength
What are the two categories of lesions found in the integumentary system?
Primary and Secondary
What condition could result from a blockage of capillary blood flow?
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
What is the medical term for a boil?
What age group does thrush commonly affect?
What condition results in visible inflammation of the nail bed and local tenderness?
What condition can result when larger blood vessel rupture and cause a pooling of blood beneath the skin surface?
What type of frostbite is characterized by mottled blue-white sking?
Deep frostbite
Blisters are a sign of what type of burns
Second Degree (Partial thickness Burns)
An adult's entire right leg accounts for what percentage of body surface area?
What is the outermost portion of a bone called?
What is the main portion of a bone called?
Compact Bone
What is a condyle?
Rounded bone end
How many muscles are in the body?
What is the outer surface of a muscle called?
What type of muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels
What type of joint is a suture?
One where there is no movement
What type of joint is condyloid?
What is the "hematopoiesis"
Process of blood cell formation
What condition results from a loss of bone mineral content?
Increased temperature in an area of bone mass is one symptom of what bone diseases?
Bone tumors
Which parts of the upper extremeties does rheumatoid arthritis most commonly affect?
Wrists and hands
What is a muscle strain?
Over stretched or torn
A bone fracture with no obvious deformity is classified as what type of fracture
Describe an "oblique" fracture
A break that extends at an angle across the bone
Where will numbness often be experienced in relation to a herniated disk?
Below the site of injury
In what area of the thorax is the heart located?
What valve is between the left atrium and left ventricle?
Mitral (Bicuspid)
What are the two largest veins in the body?
Superiour and Inferior Vena Cava
What type of antigens and Rh factor does a person with type AB+ blood have?
Antigen A, antigen B, and RH factor D
Map the route of the circulating blood as is leaves the left ventricle.
See 414 Question 1
What are the two functions of the lymphatic system?
Help maintain proper fluid balance and help defend the body against infection
After passing through the lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels merge to form what component of the lymphatic system?
Lymphatic Trunks
What vein is joined to the thoracic duct?
Left Subclavian vein
Into which vein (or veins) does all lymph eventually empty?
One of the two subclavian veins
What are the macrophages?
Infection fighting organisms in the lymph
What is the function of lymphocytes?
To fight infection
What condition is characterized by the buildup of calcium deposits inside the arteries
What is the most common cause of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries?
What is the common problem associated with all types of hemophilia?
the inability of the blood to clot properly
What conditon is characterized by the prescence of blood leaking into the pericardial sac?
Cardiac Tamponade
How is a pulse pressure determined?
By determining the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure
To what part of the circulatory system do the alveoli connect directly?
What is the main function of the pleurae? How many layers do the pleurae have?
To protect the lungs. Two
How many lobes does the right lung have?
Where are intercostal muscles?
Between the ribs
What is the primary stimulus to breathe?
The need to eliminate carbon dioxide from the body
What controls the action of the diaphragm?
Phrenic Neves
When filled to capacity, approximately how much air can the lungs hold?
6 Liters
What test is necessary to confirm a diagnosis of active TB?
TB skin test
What disease is characterized by the enlargement, over-distention, and destructive changes in the air space of the lungs?
What is pleurisy?
Infection of the pleural sac
"Paradoxical Motion" is a sign of what condition?
Flail chest
What term is used to indicate the presence of air in the thoracic cavity?
What condition is characterized by the presence of blood, instead if air, in the pleural space?
What are the two main divisions of the nervous system?
Central and Peripheral
Where is the motor area of the cerebrum located?
What is the name of the third cranial nerve?
Oculmotor nerve
What type of movements does the somatic nervous system control?
What part of the nervous system automatically causes the body fundtions to speed up?
What part of the nervous system automatically causes body functions to return to normal?
Migrane headaches usually occur less frequently after what age?
35 and up
What is the duration of each cluster headache?
10 minutes to several hours
How many general categories of convulsion are there?
What type of disorder is Bell's palsy
Cranial Nerve Disorder
What is one sign of a serious brain injury?
CSF fluid in the ears and nose
What causes a concussion?
Head trauma producing a brief loss of consciousness, immediately followed by confusion or memory loss
Where will loss of function be evident in a case of a severed spinal cord?
Below the level of injury.
What is contained in the third layer of the alimentary canal wall?
What are "decidious" teeth?
A persons first set of teeth
What portion of the pharynx is located behind the palate and serves as a passageway for food and air?
What quadrant is the stomach located in?
Upper left quadrant
Where is the gall bladder located?
Along the inferior surface of the liver.
Where is bile produced?
In the liver
What are the involuntary muscle contractions that move food from the esophagus to the stomach?
Where is bile produced? Where is it stored?
Liver/ Gallbladder
What is the function of the villi in the smal intestine?
To absorb nutrients
What is gastroenteritis?
Acute inflamation of stomach and intestinal linings
What disorder is characterized by the presence of gallstones?
What three things determine the severity of a penetrating injury to the abdomen?
Size and force of injury and the affected organs
List the signs and symptoms of esophageal trauma and perforations
Local pain, dysphagia, Dyspnea if pressure applied, Elevated temperature, Blood stained or excessive salivation
Where are the kidneys located?
Superior portion of the posterior abnominal cavity
What is the concave portion of the kidney called?
Renal Pelvis
Between what two parts of the urninary system do the ureters extend?
What is the approximate length of the female urethra?
1 1/2 inch
What happens to the fluid waste that is filtered from the blood by capilleries in the glomerulus?
It is squeezed into Bowman Capsules
What is the capacity of an adults urinary bladder?
What is the final step of the urination process?
Urethra carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
What is anuria?
No urine caused by kidney problems or obstruction
What is diuresis?
Increased production of urine
What is polyuria?
Excessive output of urine
What is uremia?
Substances normally put in urine are excreted in the blood
What are most kidney stones composed of?
What is cystis?
A bladder infection
What disorder results from exposure to a bacterial source, but it can also be caused by an obstruction, trauma, pregnancy, or metabolic disorder?
Infection of the Renal Pelvis or Pylonephritis
What are the primary male sex organs?
The Testes
What are the two male external acessory sex organs?
Penis and Scrotum
Where is the prostate gland located?
Surrounds the beginning of the urethra just below the urinary bladder
What two male internal accessory sex organs does the vas deferens connect?
Epidemis and the seminal vessicle
After sperm cells are produced, where do they mature?
Why does the prostate gland secrete fluid into the ejaculatory duct?
To protect sperm from acidic secretions
What male hormone is responsible for male characteristics (e.g., growth of body hair and thickening of vocal cords)?
What are the primary female sex organs?
What holds ovaries in their poition?
How many layers does the uterine wall have?
How many female external accessory organs are there?
At what age do females usually reach puberty?
What is the first menstrual cycle in the life of a female called?
What are the two "female" hormones?
Estrogen & Progesterone
When do menses begin?
Approximately day 28
What sexually transmitted disease is caused by the treponema pallidum?
When are the more painful sores of genital herpes usually experienced?
What bacterial infection is similar to gonorrhea and can result in male prostate or epididymis infections?
What condition is characterized by inflammation of the vagina?
What condition is characterized by an abnormal growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus?
Where is the lacrimal gland located?
Within the orbit on the side of the eye
How many extrinsic muscles extend form the outer surface of the eye to the bones of the orbit?
Where is vitreous humor located?
Posterior cavity of the eye behind the lens
What muscle causes the eye to rotate toward the midline?
Medial Rectus
What is "accomodation"?
The ability of the lens to adjust it's thicknes and shape to focus on objects at various distances.
What two actions occur in the lens when you look at a distant object?
Ciliary muscles relax and the lens becomes thinner
What are the two external ear structures?
Auricle (or pinna) and external auditory canal
What is the system of chambers and tubes in the inner ear called?
Approximately how many hair cells are located in the organ of Corti?
How many vibration per second can normal hearing detect
What part of the ear does the pinna guide sound waves into?
External Auditory Canal
What does dynamic equilibrium involve?
Interpreting head and body movement
How many passageways are in the nasal conchae?
Where are the olfactory receptors located?
In the upper posteriour nasal cavity
What are "olfactory tracts"?
Pathways that extend beyond olfactory bulbs
How many primary odor groups can the nose detect?
Why are some odors difficult for us to detect?
Because olfactory receptors are located high in the nasal cavity
What percent of odor intensity is lost within the first second after receptor stimulation?
What does "OS" mean?
Left Eye
What is blepharitis?
Inflimation of the eyelid?
What percentage of foreign bodies affect only the cornea?
Why are children especially susceptible to ear disorders?
Small size of estuchian tubes
What type of hearing loss is also referred to as perceptive loss?
What is a common complication of a perforated tympanic membrane?
What condition is considered to be a complication of an upper respiratory tract infection?
Where does epixtasis originate
Anterior nasal cavity
What is the primary concern associated with foreign bodies in the nose?
The potential of introducing foreign bodies into the respiratory tract.
What are cells that act as hormone receptors called?
Target Cells
What is the "master gland"?
The Pituitary
What gland secretes STH?
Anterior Pituitary
What hormone promotes the production of maternal milk following childbirth?
Where are the adrenal glands located?
Superior portion of the kidney
How many hormones are secreted by the Isles of Langerhans?
Glucagon has a direct effect on which organ?
Memory impairment is a sign of what disorder of the endocrine system?
Who is primarily affected by subacute thyroiditis?
young women
What part of the endocrine system is affected by primary aldosteronism?
Adrenal Cortex
What disorder is associated with adrenocortical insuffeciency?
Addison's Disease
What condition in males is characterized by inflammation of the urethra?
Where is the pain that is commonly associated with prostatitis?
Lower Back abdomen Rectum and glans penis