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45 Cards in this Set

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Birth:
Describe what to do once baby pops out?
(name 5)
1.suction mucus from airway
2. clamp & cut cord
3. don't yank the placenta out, it should follow
momentarily
4. give baby to mom for warmth
5. abnormalities
Infants:
Diarrhea d/t?
(name 5)
infxn
gluten-induced enteropathy
cystic fibrosis
sugar malabsorption
allergic gastroenteropathy
Infants:
Colic - what is it?
colic is intestinal cramping & manifests as infant abd pain & irritability.
Infants:
Colic - what tests would you do?
Tests include PE, UA, CBC, & examining the mother's diet.
Skowron said it is usu d/t formula or allergens in mom's diet
Infants:
Constipation - what would that be d/t?
a neural smooth muscle condition or dairy
Sudden Infant Death Syn:
SIDS:
30% occurs at what ages while children are?
most often to kids between 2 weeks & 1 year while children are sleep
SIDS:
Incidence has increased or decreased?,& this ironically corresponds with what?
incidence has increased, demonstratably
SIDS:
What does it mean to be a "dx of exclusion"?
this means your ddx has exhausted known routes of origin and this term is given by default
Congenital Heart Dz:
Atrial Septal Defect-
What is it and where?
hole between RA & LA
Congenital Heart Dz:
Atrial Septal Defect-
Presents as?
murmur when x>1 y/o, diastolic
results in dilation of RA & RV
Congenital Heart Dz:
Ventricular Septal Defect-
What is it & where?
hole in the septum between the RV & LV
Congenital Heart Dz:
Ventricular Septal Defect-
Results in?
(name 4)
1. loud pansystolic murmur
2. early from 2 weeks on
3. cardiomegaly as RV hypertrophies d/t increase in blood
4. forces thickening of pulmonary aa. walls
Tetralogy of Fallot:
Presents as?
(name 5)
1. pulmonary valve stenosis
2. ventricular septal defect
3. aorta over septum so it gets blood from BOTH VENTS
4. RV hypertrophy
5. cyanosis, murmurs from birth, respitory arrest, requires immediate surgery
Patent Ductus Arteriosus:
What is it? Who is it frequent urine
failure of pulmonary aa & aorta to close, frequent in preemies, sx = bounding pulse, systolic or continuous murmur
Hirschsprung's Dz:
What is it?
congenital megacolon d/t
absence of Meissner's & Auerbach's autonomic plexes which instruct the bowel & distal colon with absent peristalsis
Hirschsprung's Dz:
Presents as:
(name 6)
1. smooth muscle spasm
2. accumulation of bowel contents
3. constipation
4. distention
5. vommitting
MEGACOLON
6. DEHYDRATION b/c body is dumping electrolytes into the interstitum
Toxic Megacolitis:
What is it?
(Name 4)
1. toxic megacolon
2. from chronic constipation or Hirschsprung's
3. overgrowth of bacteria in distal colon
4. water dumping into the colon causing electrolyte levels
Cleft lip/Palate
What is it?
one of the most common birth defect: incomplete fusion of soft palate and/or lip
Cleft lip/Palate
incident rate?
1:700~1:800 births
Cleft lip/palate
possible cause?
Bensodiazepenes during prgnancy
Hydocephalus
What is it?
Brain ventricular enlargement w/excessive CSF
Hydocephalus -
most common cause of?
large head in newborns
Hydrocephalus
Tx?
placing a mechanical shunting device into the baby's head to help drain the extra CSF from brain surgically
Spina bifida
What is it?
neural tube defects - defective closure of vertebral column - low thoracic, lumbar, or sacral 3-6 vertebral segs
Spina bifida
what can cause this?
form mother's folic acid deficiency
-since neural tube formed by 1st 4wk, folic acid should be taken b/f
Spina bifida can cause?
meningitis and paralysis
Cryptorchidism
What is it?
absence from the scrotum of one or both testes - undescended testes - incompletes descent of one or both but normal hormones
Crytorchidism
if not surgically corrected?
-lead to failure of spermatogenesis
-higher risk of testicular cancer
Down syndrome
What is it?
disorder that includes a comination of birth defects:
-mental retardation
-characteristic facial features
Down syndrome
what causes it?
Trisomy 21, chromosomal disorder
Down syndrome
Signs and symptoms?
-babies placid
-rarely cry
-muscle hypotonia
-extra neck skin
-physical and mental development is low
-congenital heart issues
-thyroid issues
-gluten issues
Failure to thrive
What is it?
acute/chronic disorder interfering with:
-nutrient intake
-absorption
-metabolism
-excretion
Failure to Thrive
weight below 3rd percentile
Failure to Thrive
identify from what?
ex) cleft lip
GERD
celiac
Cystic fibrosis
fructose intolerance
DM
proteinuria
hyperthyroid
environmental neglect
inadequate breast milk
apathetic
APGAR
What is it?
assessment of the newborn rating;
-color
-HR
-stimulus response
-muscle tone
-respiration
on a scale of 0~2
Max score: 10
this test performed twice, 1st at one minute and then again at 5min after birth
APGAR
1. color scoring?
0=blue
1=blue extremeties
2=all pink
APGAR
2. pulse scoring?
0=absent
1= <100,
2= >100
APGAR
3. respiration scoring?
0=absent
1=slow
2=crying
APGAR
4. stimulus response scoring (response to nasal cathater)?
0=none
1=grimace
2=sneeze/cough
APGAR
5. muscle tone scoring?
0=limp
1=some flexion
2=active
sleep problems
night terrors, somnambulism, stramonium
homeopathic for sleep probs
stromonium
Enuresis
bed wetting
cause of enuresis
1-2% is UTI - more rare = anatomical abnormalities
tx of enuresis
no fluids 2-3 hrs before, amino acid tx, alarms, motivation