Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
primary disorders
dysfunction originating in the peripheral endocrine gland
secondary disorders
understimulation or overstimulation by the pituitary
endocrine disorders (usually hypofunction) occur because of
abnormal tissue responses to hormones
Hyperfunction of endocrine glands
may result from overstimulation by the pituitary but is most commonly due to hyperplasia or neoplasia of the gland itself
or from
Hormone excess from exogenous hormone administration.
Tissue hypersensitivity to hormones can occur from hyperfuntion -how?
Antibodies can stimulate peripheral endocrine glands, as occurs in hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease.
Over production of hormones occurs in?
response to a disease state.
Destruction of an endocrine gland can lead to?
hormone release
Hypofunction of an endocrine gland can result from?
understimulation by the pituitary
Hypofunction originating within the peripheral gland itself?
can result from congenital or acquired disorders
Genetic disorders producing hypofunction can result from?
deletion of a gene or by production of an abnormal hormone
Several hormones require conversion to an active form after secretion from the peripheral endocrine gland - What can block this?
Disorders such as renal disease can inhibit production of the active form of vitamin D.
Antibodies to the circulating hormone or its receptor can?
block the ability of the hormone to bind to its receptor.
Disease, circulating substances, or drugs can cause?
increased rate of clearance of hormones
Abnormalities of the receptor?
can also produce hypofunction.
In the lab, measure what for endocrine?
Free or bioavailable hormone (ie, hormone not bound to a specific binding hormone
When to do measurements?
set time of day, or same day in the week, depending on what type of hormone
Hypofunction disorders are usually treated by
replacement of the peripheral endocrine hormone regardless of whether the defect is primary or secondary
hyperfunction disorders?
Radiation therapy, surgery, and drugs that suppress hormone production
As we age, most hormone levels decrease. What stays the same?
TSH, ACTH (basal), thyroxine, cortisol (basal), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, (sometimes increases), and estradiol (in men).
Hormones that increase as we age?
ACTH(response to corticotropin-releasing hormone) follicle-stimulating hormone, sex-hormone binding globulin, and many more...
what decline>
Growth hormone, melatonin estrogen and testosterone
Unintended Weight Loss from?
Diabeties insipidus, hyperthyroidism
Abnormal Skin Pigmentation from?
Excess ACTH in Addison's, pregnancy hormone, etc
gynecomastia is?
Enlargement of the male breast, must be distinguished from tumors or mastitis.
Who has gynecomastia?
Klinefelter's syndrome, some athletes who abuse androgens and anabolic steroids, HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART
Symptoms and Signs
Fatty, Glandular,Pubertal gynecomastia.
Pubertal gynecomastia often resolves spontaneously within 1–2 years, surgery if severe.
more treatment?
painful or persistent (> 12 months) gynecomastia may be treated with a 3- to 9-month course of a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM; eg, raloxifene or tamoxifen).
Erectile Dysfunction & Diminished Libido in Men may be due to?
Psychogenic factors as well as endocrine, vascular, or neurologic abnormalities, as well as hypogonadism.
Other causes of erectile dysfunction?
hyperthyroidism, Addison's disease, and acromegaly, vascular dz, SSRI's and diabeties.
Leriche's syndrome?
Vascular claudication of the legs along with related impotence
One or both testes may be absent from the scrotum at birth
Cryptorchism should be corrected when?
before age 12–24 months in an attempt to reduce the risk of infertility
Bone Pain & Pathologic Fractures
Onset of pathologic fractures at an early age is seen in osteogenesis imperfecta
Painful bowing of the bones and pseudofractures?
rickets or osteomalacia.
What could cause this?
Hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, hyperthyroidism and Cushing's syndrome
Common cause of bone pain?
Vitamin D defic
Muscle Cramps & Tetany
Usually caused by sports - if not, a very long list includes dm, periph neurop, vasc dz....
McArdle's disease
caused by muscle phosphorylase deficiency; presenting symptoms and signs include muscle fatigue, cramping, and high serum CK levels
Mental changes may be a sign of what underlying endocrine disorders?
Hypogonadism, postpartum depression, pms, hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism sx?
mental slowness, depression, and lethargy
hypocalcemia from untreated hypoparathyroidism sx?
intellectual deterioration.
Hypoglycemia Sx?
confusion, abnormal speech, and behavioral or personality changes as well as sudden loss of consciousness, somnolence and prolonged lethargy, or coma; frank psychosis can occur but is rare.
Anterior pituitary gland function is controlled by?
hypothalamic hormones and by direct feedback inhibition
posterior pituitary receives antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin from?
Hypothalamic hormones generally stimulate the anterior pituitary except for?
dopamine, which inhibits the pituitary from spontaneously secreting PRL.
What's PRL?
Anterior Hypopituitarism?
Loss of one, all, or any combination of anterior pituitary hormones.
Hypopituitarism can be caused by?
either hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction?
Patients with hypopituitarism may have?
single or multiple hormonal deficiencies
When one hormonal deficiency is discovered...?
others must be sought.
Mass lesions causing hypopituitarism inclcude:
pituitary adenomas, granulomas, Rathke's cleft cysts, apoplexy, metastatic carcinomas.........
Hypopituitarism without mass lesions may be genetic or idiopathic, or may be caused by?
trauma, cranial radiation, surgery, encephalitis, hemochromatosis, autoimmunity, or stroke. It may also occur after coronary artery bypass grafting.
About 25–30% of survivors of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury have?
at least one anterior pituitary hormone deficiency
Physiologic isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism is common and occurs with?
severe illness, malnutrition, and extreme prolonged exercise (in women). It is also commonly found among obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ACTH deficiency?
reduces adrenal secretion of cortisol, testosterone, and epineph. aldosterone is ok
Growth hormone (GH) deficiency?
causes short stature in children; adults experience asthenia, obesity, and increased cardiac mortality.
PRL deficiency
inhibits postpartum lactation.
TSH deficiency
causes secondary hypothyroidism
LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) deficiency
cause hypogonadism and infertility in men and women.