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74 Cards in this Set

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Immune Response
Type 1 - characteristics?
Rapid Hist. Release - Ag/IgE
Vasodilation
secretion
smooth m spasm
Immune Response
Type 2 - characteristics?
cytotoxic
your immune system uses NK to kill off a lot of cells (more on this later)
Type III characteristics
Ag/Ab complex settles into tissues - often have high cholesterol
found in muscle and joints
Type IV characteristics?
Delayed hypersensitivity
T cells release inflam cytokines
Examples of Type I
Allergic Rhinitis
conjunctivitis
food, dermatitis, asthma,
anaphylaxis
Can Type I be inherited?
Yes siree bob!
How do you test for Type I?
IgE levels, skin testing, and if the skin is too reactive, use RAST
What percentage of Filipinos have diary allergies?
99%!
Sx of Type I Allergic Rhinitis?
seasonal, itchy nose, tearing, clear watery nasal discharge, coughing wheezing, h/a and high eos. levles
What is perennial rhinitis?
non seasonal symptoms that include: chronic sinus congestion, decrease hearing in children, bluish red mucosa
Sx of Allergic conjunctivitis
Itchy eyes, tears, hist of environ. allergens, NO PAIN
Sx of Food Allergy?
IgE related. Normally dev. in infancy - mom allergic and she's breastfeeding - passes it on
More sx of food allergy?
Can lead to anaphylaxis.
In a baby - can have excema or colic, then after a year - asthma and allergic rhinitis
Common food allergens?
eggs, peanuts, milk, soy
What is anaphylaxis?
Acute IgE mediated rxn to drugs or food.
Histamine release causes smooth muscle contraction, vascular dilation.
Effects of anaphylaxis?
Urticaria, angioedema, shock, pul edema, wheezing, flush, pruritis, CV failure
Treatment of anaphylaxis?
Grab that Epipen! need epinephrine
What is angioedema?
Diffuse painful swellin in hands, feet, or face. Possible dyspnea.
How is angioedema different form urticaria?
Angioedema has much more profuse swelling
What could you have a physical allergy to?
Temperature, sun, water, vibration
What's pruritis?
Severe itching
What are some of the sx of physical allergy?
Pruritis, urticaria, angioedema, shock, bronchospasm
Ok - on to Type II - examples of?
Hemolytic anemia, Pemphigous ( a bullous skin dz), goodpastures, incompatible transfusion reaction (or transplant rxn)
Did I already do a card for the definition of Type II? Here's another
Cells destroyed by complement lysis or phagocytosis - possibly enhanced by antibodies
Type III - he elaborated on his first definition -
Deposition of Ag/Ab complexes.
What does type III cause?
chronic inflamation, destruction, depending on location
Examples of Type III?
RA, MS, Parkinsons
Type IV - Examples of?
A Drug Rxtn (like on the skin from pennicilin)
Poison Ivy, vasculitis, nephritis, hepatitis
Type IV Sx?
Rash, fever, thrombocytopenia
What is innate in the blood?
Neutros, monos, macros, NK's
Is innate immunity non specific?
Yep!
What do cytokines do?
Fever producing, stimulate Ab.
Examples of cytokines?
Interferon, TNF, interleukins
Oops - forgot to define cytokines?
Polypeptides that proliferate in response to an antigen.
What's adaptive immunity?
T's, B's, Lymphocytes, Ig's
Some characteritics of B cells.
They recognize Ag with unique receptors (that can change) called Ig's. The Ig's interact with the antigen
What do T-cells have?
NOT suface Ig - they had CD3 t-cell receptor.
How do T-cells work?
Other cells present Ag to the T cell (APC's)
Where does the T cell come from?
Thymus. Learns to distinguish self form non self in 1st 7 years of life.
T helpers are?
CD 4
- They diferentiate to Th1 and Th2
Can have Th1 and Th2 - difference?
Th1 is specific and Th2 is humoral
Cytotoxic are?
T- cell CD8. COmbats viruses and tumors
Where fo B cells mature?
Bone marrow.
What do B's produce?
Ab - IgM first
What do Ab do?
Ab attach to Ag and increase phagocytosis
What do T helper cells do?
Initiate IgG production
IgA is specific to?
Mucosa
IgE is specific to?
Allergies
What test do you use to measure Ig's?
ELISA
What is the complement system?
Enzymatic proteins that increase Ag/Ab attachments.
What does the complement system accomplish?
Chemotaxis to Ag, cell lysis and prevents over large Ab clumping.
What happens in the body when an infection resolves?
Ag removed, infection controlled, no more cytokines released, xs mucus comes out (stuffy nose) and lymphocytes die down (via apoptosis)
What if you have a deficiency in your immune system?
Frequent URI (ok if you are 6-8 yo) and bacterial infection, opportunistic infection come in, more on the next card
immuno deficiency sx?
skin ulcers, failure to thrive, susceptible to gram +, virus, fungi.
More Sx of immuno deficiency?
Pale, malaise, distended abdomen.
Are immuno deficiencies normally genetic?
Yep
How do you diagnose immunodeficiency?
low WBC, Inadequate vaccine response when you have Ig testing.
Other labs/scans for immuno def diagnosis?
Thymus Xray, (need to see shadow in a child from 1-7)
Even more labs?
T-subset testing of CD4 and CD8, complement testing and genetic testing
What is Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia?
Delay in Ig production. In Preemies, Have abnormal B cell count.
Self limiting after 6-18 months
What are the sx of selective IgA deficiency?
very common, chronic URI, diarrhea, allergy, autoimmune.
sometime anaphylaxis
Will it resolve on its own?
It may
What is X-linked agammaglobulinemia also known as?
Brutons Agammaglobunemia
What are the sx of X-linked agammaglobulinemia?
Very low Ig, and B
Inherited
recurrent infections
also vaccine related infections
How do you treat this?
Life time Ig supplementationa and chronic Abx.
Is this Dz poplular for the boards?
Apparently so.....
What is common variable immunodeficiency?
Normal B's, but decreased T's.
What are some of the affects of CVI?
Autoimmune, arthritis, thyroid problems, diarrhea, malabsorption, cancer and lymphma
What is DiGeorge Anomaly?
Absence of hypodevelopment of thymus and parathyroid.
Some sx of DiGeorge?
facial clefts, Heart dz, Chromosome 22 abnormality
Recurrent infections
What is the leading cause of world infant death?
Malnutrition related immunodeficiency
How does this Dz happen?
Low weight leads to low immune function
Then what?
Infection leads to anorexia
What does the blood work look like for malnutrition related immunodeficiency?
Low T, Low Ab and.....
ELEVATED IgE.