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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 types of chemical synapses?
Ionotropic and metabotropic
What are the 5 major ionotropic NTs
1. ACh
2. Glu
3. GABA
4. 5-HT
5. Gly

NO DA or NE!
How do the ionotropic NTs work?
1. They allow ions to diffuse through the post synaptic membrane
How do metabotropic NTs work?
They use 2nd messengers in the post synaptic membrane
Name 4 major metabotropic NTs
1. ACh
2. Glu
3. GABA
4. 5-HT, DA, NE

DA, NE and no Gly
What is anandimide?
The endogenous metabotropic cannabinoid receptor
What is BDNF and how does it affect depression?
1. Metabotropic, memory and depression molecule
2. All Anti depressants increase BDNF receptors
What is vesicle loading?
1. Superloading NTs into a vesicle
Describe and electrical synapse and how it fires?
1.Tight gap junctions
2. Fire 10x faster than chemical synapses
3. not a drug target
4. Heart muscle or the retina have these.
What is silent synaptic?
1. An NMDA without AMPA
2. non-functional
Describe a principle neuron?
Neuron with a cell body in one area of the brain that synapses in another area
What is an interneuron?
A neuron with cell body and axon only in one area of the brain
What are full agonists and how do they turn the receptors?
1. AMPA and Glu
2. cause a full 20 degree rotation to allow ions in
What is a partial agonist and hwo does it activate ion channel?
Kalinate causes a 12 degree rotation that partially opens the channel to allow ions in
How does an antagonist work?
Basically binds and does nothing to the channel
What is unique about the NMDA receptor?
1.Needs gly(inhibitory) and glu(excite) NTs to work
2.most complicated receptor
What are the two types of GABA receptors?
A = ionotropic
B = metabotropic
What is tolerance to a drug?
The downregulation of number of receptors
What does the GABA a receptor do?
Opens the Cl- channels to hyperpolarize the cell
Why does the body upregulate receptors?
If the receptor is blocked, the body will make more receptors to illicit the effect ...AKA sensitization
When does the body down regulate receptors?
When an NT is producing a greater response than needed .... AKA desensitization
What are hard wired heirarchial neuronal systems, types and how do drugs affect them?
1. Large, myelinated fibers
2. sensory perception and motor controls
3. Drugs here have well defined effects.
What are non specific/ diffuse neuronal systems?
1. Unmyelinated, branched
2. NTs transmit via chemical soup

Drugs here have a very general affect on sleep or mood.(NE, 5HT, DA)
What NT do drugs of abuse release and from where?
DA from the nucleus accumbens
By what method do acute drugs interact?
1. Ionotropic
2. need to continually bind
Drugs that work with synapse remodelling have what speed and occupy the receptors how?
1. Slow onset of action,
2. continual receptor occupancy is not required
What are the 3 types of channels in the neuronal membranes?
1. Voltage gated
2. Ligand Gated
3. Ligand/voltage gated
What ions go in with EPSPs
Na or Ca
What ions go in with IPSPs
K or CL
How do drugs affect the presynapse?
Alteration of production, storage, release and reupatke of NTs
What does ethanol do to the NMDA receptor?
Blocks it