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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Corneal Reflex:
Important reflex that ___
Stimulus to cornea carried in afferent axons in the ___
Efferent axons in the ___ contract orbicularis oculi muscle
Loss of reflex with facial nerve injury causes ___
-protects the eye
-trigeminal nerve (CN V)
-facial nerve [CN VII]
-corneal damage and ulceration
Müller’s muscle is ___ muscle
Innervated by ___ from the ___
Paralysis causes ___
Part of ___ Syndrome
-smooth
-postganglionic sympathetics
-superior cervical ganglion
-ptosis or drooping of the upper lid
-Horner’s
Orbital Fractures:
Blowout fracture
Thin walls allow fractures that can involve the sinuses.
Medial wall fractures can involve the ___ sinuses
Injury to the floor can involve the ___ sinus

Damage to the roof can involve the ___
Bleeding into the orbit may cause ___
-ethmoid
-maxillary
-frontal lobe of the brain
-eye to protrude –called exopthalmos.
Opthalmic Artery:

1st branch of ___

Major blood supply to ___

One of smallest branches is the central artery of the retina (which enters optic nerve to get to the retina), occlusion of which can cause ___

Posterior ciliary arteries penetrate sclera to supply ___
-internal carotid artery
-orbit
-blindness in that eye
-choroid and outer retina (pigment epithelium and rods and cones)
Danger area: retrograde infections from the ___ spread to the ___.
This is possible because of venous communication (via the ___) between the ___ vein and the ___
-nasal area
-brain
-ophthalmic veins
-facial
-cavernous sinus
Danger zone:
Retrograde infections can travel from nasal area via ___ (explain path)
Or, ___ (explain path)
-facial v. --> angular v. --> nasofrontal v. --> superior ophthalmic v. --> cavernous sinus in brain
-(facial v. --> deep facial v. --> pterygoid venous pelxus --> inferior ophthalmic v. --> cavernous sinus in brain)
Nerve Palsies:

Abducens palsy – affects ___

When staring straight ahead (primary gaze) affected eye pulled ___ by unopposed ___
-lateral gaze
-medially
-medial rectus.
Trochlear palsy
Hypertropia – affected eye looks ___ when patient asked to stare ahead
Patient suffers from ___
Patient tilts head ___ to compensate
-upward (& extortion that cannot be seen in patient)
-diplopia
s. 38
-downward away from affected eye
Oculomotor palsy
Affects 4 of six extraocular muscles
Affected eye stares ___ due to unopposed actions of ___ muscles
Patient cannot ___ upper lid
Cannot stare at object as it is ___
Suffers ___
Pupil of affected side ___ due to unopposed action of ___
-down and out
-lateral rectus and superior oblique
-elevate
-moved toward face (impaired adduction)
-Diplopia
-sympathetics on dilator pupillae muscle