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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
grammatical rules governing how words form phrases
phrase structure rules
group together elements in sentences
phrase structure rules
Define the make up of higher level syntactic categories
phrase structure rules
examples of phrase structure rules
o S → NP VP
o VP → VP NP; V NP PP; V PP; V S
o PP → P NP
o NP/DP → (det) N
(“parts of speech”): N, V, Adj, Preposit, determiner
syntactic categories
what are: NP, VP, PP (DP)?
phrase categories
The phrasal categories which must co-occur with a verb in a sentence (part of lexical rep)
Subcategorization
what are subject, object, verb (defined by position in sentence)?
grammatical roles
• Semantic role – the role in the event that the subject and object(s) play
• Participant roles; meaning relations
o Agent, Experiencer, Theme, Goal, Instrument
thematic roles
name for the set of participants entailed by a verb (“do-er” and “do-ee” of a verb – thematic roles)
Argument structure
what 2 things does knowing a verb mean knowing?
subcategorization frame & argument structure
Additional information about the location, time, or other features of the event being described
adjunct
are adjuncts par of the verb's subcat fra me or arg structure?
no
trace theory
1. Thematic roles are assigned by the verb.
2. Items move from a post-verbal position.
3. Leave behind a trace.
4. Co-referential relation between moved item and trace
subcategorization
syntactic
thematic roles & argument structure
semantic
2 types of non-canonical sentences
1. wh-movment structures
2. NP-movement structures
Who(i) has(j) the thief(tj) chased(tj)? (what type of sentence?)
wh- movemnt (non-canonical)
The artist(i) was chased(ti) by the thief
NP- movment (non-canonical)
Lexical ambiguity
“bank”
Financial institution
Side of a river
“newspaper” (more subtle)
Physical object
Institution
Global (syntactic) ambiguity
Visiting relatives can be a pain.
The lady hit the man with a book
Local (temporary) ambiguity
(garden-path sentences)
the horse raced past the barn fell
(syntactic analysis preceded semantic)
Syntactic analysis precedes semantic analysis
Garden Path Model
Attach incoming unit to the phrase being constructed, using the fewest possible nodes
(Prefer simple structures)
minimal attachment
Incoming material is added to the clause or phrase currently being processed; add to current phrase, don’t close it
(Prefer recent structures)
late closure
which parsing strategy? attach new items to the phrase being constructed; no unnecessary nodes postulated
min attachment
which parsing strategy? incomin matl is added to the current phrase; add to current phrase, don't close it
late closure
working memory in sentence comp
*syntax affects processing more than length
**what's relevant is: distance b/n filler & gap AND distance b/n subject & verb
non-syntactic processing 1
heuristic strategies - word order
**actives easier than passives
non-syntactic processing 2
Lexico-pragmatic: use of word meaning and knowledge of real world events (animacy is a cue to agent)
**Irreversible sentences easier than reversible sentences
number of participants required by a verb
argument structure
arrangement(s) of a verbs arguments
subcategorization frame
a set of meaning roles that a verb assigns to its arguments
thematic grid
types of thematic roles
agent, theme, experiencer, goal
non-alternating or alternating easier?
non-alternating
obligatory or optional easier?
obligatory
optional constituent: extra info that is not nec. for the verb to make sense
adjunt
ex; katie ate cake [in the kitchen]
optionality test
the phrase is:
-adjunct if verb makes sense w/out phrase
-argument if verb doesn't make sense w/out phrase
position in sentence from which a syntactic element has been moved
GAP
word appearing early in the sentence that "fills" the empty syntactic position
filler
the filler is linked up (glued together) with this gap
co-referential index
a NP is moved from 1 argument NP position to another argument NP position
NP movement
object NP moves to subject NP position
passive (the monkey was hit by the elephant)
subject NP moves: FROM the subject of the embedded clause TO the subject of the matrix clause
NP-Raising (the monkey seemed to hit the elephant)
main message of the sentence that can stand alone as a sentence
matrix clause (THE MONKEY seemed to HIT THE ELEPHANT)
additional info added to the main message that cannot stand alone as a sentence
embedded clause (the monkey SEEMED TO hit the elephant)
wh- constituents move from inside the VP to a non-argument position
wh-movement
it was the elephant that hit the monkey
subject cleft
it was the monkey that the elephant hit
object cleft
a qualifying clause that refers to and provides addtl info about a preceding noun/pronoun, often beginning w/relative pronouns such as who, which, or that
relative clause
the rabbit saw the elephant who hit the monkey
subject relative
the rabbit saw the monkey who the elephant hit
object relative
sentence production sequence
message -> functional processing -> positional processing -> phonological encoding
message level where you decide what you're going to say (very 1st linguistic encoding)
macroplanning
level where you select words you're going to say
functional level
level at which argument structure & thematic roles are relevant
functional level
level at which smaller, functional words are applied
positional level
level at which morphemes are accessed (closed class)
positional level
level at which assembly of phonologically realized words & morphemes into a sentence frame takes place
positional level
where phrase structure rules start to apply
positional level
errors suggesting functional level processing
semantic errors (lexical selection impaired)
blending errors (flawed lexical selection)
errors implicating positional level processing (1)
Non-reversal word order errors (type of word exchange)
words simultan available for insertion
errors implicating positional level processing (2)
Stranding errors
(They were turking talkish --> They were talking Turkish.)
(He is schooling to go. --> He is going to school.)
misattachment of grammatical morphemes to open class items
-errors occur within a single phrase
-adjacent content words often affected
-evidence that inflectional morphemes are features of the sentence frame
errors implicating positional level processing (3)
Lexeme errors
He picked up the penstil. --> He picked up the pencil
role-reveral errors
could be functional (assigned wrong them roles) or positional (switched positions)
signs of agrammatism
-reduced rate
-gramm ill-formed sentences
-word order errors
-reduced syntactic complexity
functional category errors (agrammatism)
-omission of function words
-omission (or sub) of bound morphemes
open class defecit patterns (agrammatism)
reduced production of verbs (hierarchy of verb difficulty based on argument structure)
2 types of intransitive verbs
1. unergative (1 external argu) - subject = agent
2. unaccusative (no external argu) - subject = theme
other production patterns - agrammatism
-primarily agents & themes
-use few goals, sentential comlements
-adjuncts harder than arguments
dissociations - agramm
-b/n bound/free morphemes
-b/n gramm morph deficits & sentence structural deficits
-b/n sent comp & prod
sentence production deficit associated w/fluent aphasia
paragrammatism
paragrammatism
-semantically empty speech
-sub of gramm morph
-phon & neol paraphasias
(gramm well-formed)
theories of paragrammatism
1. poor comp/reduced feedback
2. reduced inhibition
imperative transitive
NP - sit down
VP + NP - drink your milk
declarative intransitive
the baby cries
declarative transitive
i gave the dog a bone