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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
True or False

Biomechanics is the study of the motion of living material under unknown forces.

Under known or assumed forces. Founded on the same basic principles as ordinary mechanics
True or False

Mechanics is the study of objects in motion and the associated forces that produce that motion.
The study of biomechanics is made more difficult because the desired properties are____.
found in vivo (involves the study of the properties of living tissues, which is difficult to do outside of a living organism). Living tissues outside of a living organism are usually, well, dead. Not the same!
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) had three universal Laws:
1. An object will stay at rest (or move at a constant velocity unless:
acted upon by a force.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) had three universal Laws:
2. The force required to accelerate an object (change its velocity) is:
directly proportional to its mass.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) had three universal Laws:
3. For every action (force upon an object) there is.
an equal and opposite reaction (force on another object)
Three quantities in mechanics are undefinable in terms of any other quantity. What are they?
Mass, length, and time
True or False

Mass is the measure of the gravitational force of attraction between a weight and a reference weight.

Mass refers to amount, not weight.
Weight is a measure of the gravitational force of attration between a mass and a reference mass (like the earth)
Mass, length, and time constitute the basic building blocks for the ____ quantities of mechanics
Name me some derived quantities of mechanics.
Displacement, velocity, momentum. I think.
Displacement defines the distance between two points in space, as well as the _______.
direction one must take to travel from one point to another.
Quantities that are made up of two or more independent pieces of information are termed ____. Gimme an example.
A quantity that scales or adjusts size is a ____. Gimme 3 examples
length, mass, time
True or False
Velocity measures the rate of change of length (with respect to time)
measures the rate of change of displacement.
What is the international standard of velocity for air and tissue movement?
m/s (meter per second)
What's this?
the mathematical definition of velocity, where
v=dx/dt, where v is the velocity vector and x is the displacement vector
True or False
Momentum is a quantity derived from displacement and mass by simple multiplication or scaling.

derived from velocity and mass
What's the mathematical definition of momentum and what is it measured in?
p is the momentum vector, m is the mass, and v is the velocity vector
It's measured in m/s (meters per second)
____ is the physical quantity imparted to an object to change its momentum
True or False

A greater force is needed to change momentum rapidly than slowly.
____ is the rate of change of momentum over time.
This formula is the mathematical definition of what?
f = dp/dt
A change in momentum can be brought about by a change in ___ as well as a change in ____, or ____.
mass, velocity, both.
What is this?
Is it the mathematical definition of ___ when the rate of change of ____ becomes the product of a _____ and the rate of change of ____?
f = m(dv/dt)

mathematical definition of force, when the rate of change of momentum becomes the product of a constant mass and the rate of change of velocity.
Yes, it is.
What's this?
the mathematical defnition of acceleration

a = dv/dt
True or False

Acceleration is a scalar quantitiy, because it can be changed in either magnitude or direction.
So, so false.

Acceleration is a vector quantity that can be changed in magnitude AS WELL AS in direction
Oh boy! Is there a way we can write Newton's second law? You know, the one that says that the force required to accelerate an object (to change its velocity) is directly proportional to its mass? If that can possibly be true, what could the formula be?
force equals mass times acceleration!
Just soak it in.
I want to study objects that are being accelerated. That would fall under the auspices of what brance of mechanics?
I want to study objects that are at rest or moving in a straight line at a constant velocity because all forces are in equilibrium. What branch of mechanics does this fall under?
statics (a component of dynamics that has particular application to structural design)
Subdivisions that involve the description of movments with or without specific reference to the forces are twofold: ___ deals with movement only, wherease ___ deals with movement as a consequence of known or assumed forces.
____ and ___ mechanics are the basic building blocks of laryngeal biomechanics. They are subdivisions of _____ mechanics.
Fluid (liquids and gasses)
solid (rigid bodies)
continuum (deals with matter that appears to be distributed over some region of space)
By isolating an object under investigation can be from its environment, I am constructing what?
a free-body diagram
What's a finite mass with zero dimensions that is located at a single point in space?
a particle
What sort of general mechanical system moves together in some cohesive way and what sorts of forces act upon it?
A system of particles
internal forces between the particles within the system
external forces that act on the entire system collectively
Gosh! My system of particles is so large I can't possibly keep track or each individual particle. I shall switch from a ___ to a ___ system orientation.
microscopic to a macroscopic
In a ____, particle motions are treated statistically and matter is thought to be a continuum (homogeneous "cloud" or particles).
macroscopic system orientation
True or False

If a continuous media preserves neither its shape nor its volume but adapts readily to the size and shape of its container it is called a liquid.

A gas. A liquid preserves its volume but adapts to the shape of it's container. A solid maintains both shape and volume.
The term ___ is used to describe the motion of liquids and gases within transport systems.
fluid mechanics
___ forces act on all portions of a distributed mass (gravity)
____ forces result from direct contact between one medium and another (wind resistance)
What can possibly be defined as force per unit area?

sigma = f/A
True or False

Perpendicular stresses that point away from the surface are compressional stresses
They are tensile stresses. compressional stresses point toward the surface.
The magnitude of a compression stress is also called ___
Tangential stresses are called ___ stresses.
When stress is applied to any surface of a continuous medium, a ___ results, unless the medium is infinitely ___.
Deformation is considered an ___ if the dimention of interest (e.g. length) increases and a __ if the dimension of interest decreases.
___ is a measure of normalized elongation.
If a deformation is applied uniformly over the body to increase or decrease its entire volume, it is called ____ or ____ respectively. In acoustics, the same volume changes are called ___ or ___ respectively.
an expansion or a compression
rarefactions or condensations
True or false

Liquids and solids are nearly incompressible, but some small change in volume always occurs with any deformation.
Hooke's law states that
stress is proportional to strain
(stress is doubled whenever strain is doubled)
It is a definition of linear elasticity
What is Young's modulus?
the modulus of elasticity
____ is the macroscopic end product of many internal dynamic interactions.
The final macroscopic relation between an applied stress and the resulting strain is called the ____
constitutive equation
With a gas in a contained space an ____ in pressure causes a ____ in volume.
The speed of deformation ofa given fluid under a shear stress is measured by its ____.
____ is a measure of how difficult it is for a fluid to flow
When human tissues are deformed, ___ determines how complete restoration is, whereas ___ and __ determing the rate of restoration. Since inertia is a universal property, this resiliency is usually described as ____
viscosity and inertia
A material deforms ___ and ___ as the stresses become ___ and ____. In other word, the relationship between stress and strain is _____
less and less
greater and greater
Fibrous substances taht show different deformation patterns along the fibers and across the fibers are said to be ____. Usually made of long chains of molecules than lattices spaced equally in all directions
The microstructure of teh vocal folds consists of a large concentration of ____
force per unit area is
elongation per unit length is
Vocal nodules occur symmetrically at the ___ of the vocal fold, where the ____ is largest.
vibrational amplitude.
The international standard unit for pressure is the ____, which is equal to ___
Pascal (Pa)
one Newton (N) per meter squared
___ is a force distributed over a surface
_____ pressure measures the stress applied by fluid particles to adjacent particles (or a container wall) in reference to a ____. It is always _____..
____ pressure is measured in reference to _____ pressure or some other ____ pressure. It can be ___
positive or negative
Pascal's Law:

_____ is transmitted rapidly and uniformly throughout an enclosed fluid ___
at rest
True or False

Within the lung, Pascal's law predicts that a single pressure can be defined for all the alveoli: alveolar pressure.
There are two things that counteract pressure transmission in the body. What are they?
gravity (pressures in the abdomen are greater than in the thorax)
elastic structures apply internal stresses that counteract liquid pressures
In conversational speech, lung pressure varies between about __ and ___ kPa, ___ kPa being a typical average value.
0.3 and 1.2 kPa
0.7 kPa
Total lung volume is made up of ___ and ___
vital capacity and residual volume
True or False

Residual volume is usually depleted only during peak output (such as competitive exercise)

Residual volume can never be depleted unless a lung collapses.
Vital capacity is made up of ___, ___, and ___
Inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume
____ is the amount of air breathed in and out during respiration, and usually constitutes about ___ of the vital capacity for low level physical activity.
Tidal volume
The residual volume is about ___ liters, while the vital capacity is about ___ liters.
Boyle's law states that in a soft-walled enclosure at constant temperature ___ and ___ are inversely related, which can be written as:
PV = constant
Ribcage expansion is the result of the contraction of the ____.
external intercostal muscles
If air pressure in the lungs is negative and the glottis is open then,
air rushes in until the lung pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure
In expiration, lung volume is decreased by the contraction of the ____, and by ____ of the lungs
internal intercostal muscles (and abdominal muscles) and elastic recoil
Since the vocal folds are ___ in phonation, there is a greater resistance to _____ and more ____ is necessary to expell the air in a reasonable amount of time.
lung pressure
When expiration involves speaking or singing, ______ is even more involved in the regulation of airflow
the larynx
During speech and singing, inspiration and expiration are ____. How?
Asymmetrical. Expiration is longer with a slow controlled release, inspiration is quicker with a large amount of air being inhaled very quickly.
Matter in motion has _____
kinetic energy
The kinetic energy of a 2.0 kg mass moving at a constant velocity of 1.0 m/s is
one joule
The rate of delivery (or expenditure) of energy to another object is an expression of ___
power (joules)
The physical power in the voice comes from _______
aerodynamic power
Fluid flow is essential for _____ production
True or False

Power conversion in the vocal system as air exits the glottis is 100 percent efficient

Rotational flow at the glottal exit as well as turbulence dissipates energy. Also mechanical losses as friction is generated by vibrating tissue.
When a pipe narrows, the air passing through it _____
speeds up
Bernoulli's principle states that if the energy in a fluid stream is ____, an _____ in particle velocity must be accompanied by a _____ in pressure.
Vocal folds open and close in a repetitive fashion as a result of interactions between ___ and ____
fluid flow
tissue movement
The term used to describe the ratio of pressure to flow is:
flow resistance
What is this formula?

Flow resistance: R is the resistance (kPa per 1/s)
In most transport systems, _____ offer the greatest resistance to flow
The pressure across the glottis divided by the flow through the glottis is described as
glottal resistance