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15 Cards in this Set

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Lesion CN I:
Olfaction is one of oldest, most primitive senses.
Loss of sense of smell is called ___.
Loss affects ___ because of role of olfaction in appreciating tastes.
Could result from head trauma involving ___.
Chronic exposures to environmental toxins such as ___ can damage olfactory epithelial cells.
-anosmia
-taste
-cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
-lead, chlorine and cadmium
Which extrinsic eye muscles are NN by CNIII (oculomotor n.)?
Medial rectus muscle
Superior rectus muscle
Inferior rectus muscle
Inferior oblique muscle
Path of Oculomotor Nerve (III):
Arises from the __ in the ___
Nerve leaves the brainstem in the ___
Passes between the ___ arteries
Enters orbit through the ___
-oculomotor nuclear complex
-midbrain
-interpeduncular fossa
-superior cerebellar artery and the posterior cerebral artery
-superior orbital fissure
3rd Nerve Palsy:
Injury to the oculomotor nerve causes:
Affected eye to look *___, due to unopposed action of the ___ and ___ muscles
Eyelid ___ on affected side because of paralysis of ___ muscle.
Involvement of parasympathetics in the nerve causes fixed and ___ pupil.
Unopposed action of ___ muscle
-down and out
-lateral rectus
-superior oblique
-closed
-levator palpebrae
-dilated
-dilator pupillae
CN IV Lesions:
Susceptible to injury associated with ___.
Patient suffers from ___.
Tilts head ___.
-severe head trauma
-diplopia [double vision]
-down and away from affected side
Trigeminal Neuralgia:

AKA ___

Most common cranial ___.

Characterized by attacks of excruciating pain over the ___.

A small ___ may be present. Light touch, a breeze, temperature change or facial movement may trigger pain.
-tic douloureux
-neuralgia
-distribution of one or more of the branches of the trigeminal nerve
-trigger zone
s. 39
Trigeminal Neuralgia:

Patient has episodes of lightning-like stabs of pain, most often in the areas of innervation of ___. The trigger zones are typically ___.
Treatment may be with ___ drugs. Failure of medical treatment may require ___ of the semilunar ganglion by radio-frequency or
vascular decompression of the sensory root by craniotomy.
-V2 or V3
-perioral or maxillary
-antiepileptic
-lesioning
s. 40
VIth Nerve Palsy:
___ deficit
Lateral gaze
s. 43
Facial Nerve (VII):

Motor to muscles of ___ (BE)
Muscles derived from ___ branchial arch
What other muscles?

SA
Taste to ___ of tongue via chorda tympani
Visceral preganglionic efferents (GVE) arise in the ___ nucleus
-Via ___ nerve of pterygoid canal to pterygopalatine ganglion
-Via chorda tympani to submandibular gland
-facial expression
-2nd
-stapedius muscle, posterior belly of digastric muscle
-anterior 2/3
-superior salivatory
-greater petrosal
Attenuation Reflex:
What is it (including mm. and CNs involved)?
40 to 80 milliseconds after exposure to loud sound, stapedius and tensor tympani muscles contract. These muscles, by their actions on malleus (TTM) and the stapes (SM), increase the rigidity of the ossicles in the middle ear. The reflex is protective, acts to mask loud, low frequency sounds and decreases sensitivity to one’s own voice.
Bell’s Palsy:

unilateral ___ paralysis of sudden onset, due to lesion of the ___ nerve and resulting in characteristic ___.
-facial
-facial
-distortion of the face
Bell's Palsy:

Most common ___ nerve disorder
___ onset over hours or days
___ recovery
Cause?
May be ___
About 80% of patients recover in ___
Blinking?
-facial
-Spontaneous
-Gradual
-idiopathic
-viral or inflammatory
-3 weeks
-Connot blink, wear patches
Acoustic Neuroma:
AKA ___
Location, ___
Slow growth (years)
Benign, but space occupying
What four symptoms?
-Acoustic Schwannoma
-Cerebellopontine angle
-Tinnitus (ringing in ears), hearing loss and vertigo (dizziness), but may cause facial paralysis because of compression of facial nerve
Deviation of Uvula:
When there is an injury to ___, on examination of the oral cavity, the uvula will deviate to ___.
Also, the ___ muscle will not contract on the affected side.
Called ___ sign
-cranial nerve X
-to unaffected side/the opposite side of lesion
-palatoglossus m.
-“curtain sign”
Hypoglossal Nerve Injury:
Because of the actions of the tongue muscles, an injury to the hypoglossal nerve causes the protruded tongue to point ___
toward the side of the nerve damage.