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Important words
Cells: Prokaryote/Eukaryoe
HOmeostasis
Autograph
Heterogroph
Taxonomy
Organic molecules
Desc. 1
Scienteis have come up with roughly six characteristics of life. All organisms must possess these characteristics in order to be considered alive
Desc 2
Once an ogranism is considered alive, it must be placed into groups with other organisms, that demonstrate similar characteristics; te placein of the orgainsim into group is directed by goofvlution relationships
desc 4
Complex multicullar animals demonstrate levels of oragnization that go from a baic unit of life, the cell, to organ systems: the human body has two organ systems
desc 5
all organisms must be able to obtain and use energy in order to remain alive: different orgnisms carry out this life function in different ways
dexc 6
There are four basic orgainc molecules of which life is made and which animals can use for fuel and for building their bodies; three of these highly important dietary nutrients
The teacher is aware of Life
1) Defn of what makes something alive
2) Scinetist must classify living things that must display characteristics
Must display defined characteristics
Cells-commonly noted as a factor made up of many departmetns
All living things are composeed of one or more cells.
cell is basic unit of life. or the smallest unit of life, or the smallast structure to be considered.
cells part 2
cells have internal structures and do work. (a common analogy for a cell is a factory divided into many (depts) to keen an organism alive
Two main type of cells-Eurkaryotic
cells made up in the human bodyAnimals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: [juːˈkæɹɪɒt]), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The most characteristic membrane bound structure is the nucleus. This feature gives them their name, also spelled "eucaryote", which comes from the Greek ευ, meaning good/true, and κάρυον, meaning nut, referring to the nucleus. In the nucleus the genetic material, DNA, is arranged in chromosomes. Many eukaryotic cells also contain membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and Golgi bodies. Eukaryotes often have unique flagella made of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement.

Finally, cell division involves a complex way of separating the duplicated chromosomes, which is also mediated by complexly choreographed arrangements of microtubules. There are two methods. In mitosis one cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells. In meiosis, which is required in sexual reproduction, one diploid cell (having two copies of each chromosome, one from each parent) undergoes a process of recombination between each pair of parental chromosomes, and then two stages of cell division, resulting in four haploid cells (gametes) each of which has only a single complement of chromosomes, each one being a unique mix and match of the corresponding pair of parental chromosomes.

Eukaryotes appear to be monophyletic and thus make up one of the three domains of life. The two other domains: bacteria and archaea (prokaryotes (without a nucleus)) share none of the above features, though the eukaryotes do share A distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (meaning true kernel, also spelled "eucaryotes") is that eukaryotes do have "true" nuclei containing their DNA, whereas the genetic material in prokaryotes is not membrane-bound. Eukaryotic organisms, such as humans, may be unicellular or multicellular. The difference between the structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is so great that it is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms. Most prokaryotes are bacteria, and the two terms are often treated as synonyms. In 1977, Carl Woese proposed dividing prokaryotes into the Bacteria and Archaea (originally Eubacteria and Archaebacteria) because of the significant genetic differences between the two. This arrangement of Eukaryota (also called "Eukarya"), Bacteria, and Archaea is called the three-domain system replacing the traditional two-empire system.

The cell structure of prokaryotes differs greatly from eukaryotes. The defining characteristic is the absence of a nucleus or nuclear envelope. Prokaryotes were also previously considered to lack cytoskeletons and to lack membrane-bound cell compartments such as vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum/endoplasmic reticula, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. In eukaryotes, the latter two perform various metabolic processes and are believed to have been derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. In prokaryotes similar processes occur across the cell membrane; endosymbionts are extremely rare. The cell walls of prokaryotes are generally formed of a different molecule (peptidoglycan) to those of eukaryotes (many eukaryotes do not have a cell wall at all). Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have structures called ribosomes, which produce protein. Prokaryotes are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotes also differ from eukaryotes in that they contain only a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA stored in an area named the nucleoid, while eukaryote DNA is found on tightly bound and organised chromosomes. Although some eukaryotes have satellite DNA structures called plasmids, these are generally regarded as a prokaryote feature and many important genes in prokaryotes are stored on plasmids.

Prokaryotes have a larger surface area to volume ratio giving them a higher metabolic rate, a higher growth rate and consequently a shorter generation time compared
Prokaroic
bacteria cells A distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (meaning true kernel, also spelled "eucaryotes") is that eukaryotes do have "true" nuclei containing their DNA, whereas the genetic material in prokaryotes is not membrane-bound. Eukaryotic organisms, such as humans, may be unicellular or multicellular. The difference between the structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is so great that it is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms. Most prokaryotes are bacteria, and the two terms are often treated as synonyms. In 1977, Carl Woese proposed dividing prokaryotes into the Bacteria and Archaea (originally Eubacteria and Archaebacteria) because of the significant genetic differences between the two. This arrangement of Eukaryota (also called "Eukarya"), Bacteria, and Archaea is called the three-domain system replacing the traditional two-empire system.

The cell structure of prokaryotes differs greatly from eukaryotes. The defining characteristic is the absence of a nucleus or nuclear envelope. Prokaryotes were also previously considered to lack cytoskeletons and to lack membrane-bound cell compartments such as vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum/endoplasmic reticula, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. In eukaryotes, the latter two perform various metabolic processes and are believed to have been derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. In prokaryotes similar processes occur across the cell membrane; endosymbionts are extremely rare. The cell walls of prokaryotes are generally formed of a different molecule (peptidoglycan) to those of eukaryotes (many eukaryotes do not have a cell wall at all). Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have structures called ribosomes, which produce protein. Prokaryotes are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotes also differ from eukaryotes in that they contain only a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA stored in an area named the nucleoid, while eukaryote DNA is found on tightly bound and organised chromosomes. Although some eukaryotes have satellite DNA structures called plasmids, these are generally regarded as a prokaryote feature and many important genes in prokaryotes are stored on plasmids.

Prokaryotes have a larger surface area to volume ratio giving them a higher metabolic rate, a higher growth rate and consequently a shorter generation time compared Prokaryotes were also previously considered to lack cytoskeletons and to lack membrane-bound cell compartments such as vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum/endoplasmic reticula, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. In eukaryotes, the latter two perform various metabolic processes and are believed to have been derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. In prokaryotes similar processes occur across the cell membrane; endosymbionts are extremely rare. The cell walls of prokaryotes are generally formed of a different molecule (peptidoglycan) to those of eukaryotes (many eukaryotes do not have a cell wall at all). Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have structures called ribosomes, which produce protein. Prokaryotes are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotes also differ from eukaryotes in that they contain only a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA stored in an area named the nucleoid, while eukaryote DNA is found on tightly bound and organised chromosomes. Although some eukaryotes have satellite DNA structures called plasmids, these are generally regarded as a prokaryote feature and many important genes in prokaryotes are stored on plasmids.

Prokaryotes have a larger surface area to volume ratio giving them a higher metabolic rate, a higher growth rate and consequently a shorter generation time compared Prokaryotes (IPA: /prəʊˈkæriəʊtiz/) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. -otes; also spelled "procaryotes") are organisms without a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. Most are unicellular, but some prokaryotes are Multicellular organisms.

The prokaryotes are divided into two domains: the bacteria and the archaea. Archaea or Archaebacteria are a newly appointed kingdom of life. These organisms were originally thought to live only in inhospitable conditions such as extemes of temperature, pH, and radiation, but have since been found in all types of habitats.
Cells in multcellular organisms
Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Most life that can be seen with the naked eye is multicellular, as are all members of the kingdoms Plantae and Animalia (except for specialized organism such as Myxozoans in the case of the latter).

[edit] Organizational levels
Multicellular organisms exhibit organization at several levels:

'Bold text''''Bold text''''===Differentiated cells===

The simplest extant (currently living) multicellular organisms, sponges, consist of multiple specialized cellular types cooperating together for a common goal. These cell types include Choanocytes, digestive cells; Sclerocytes, support-structure-secreting cells; Porocytes, tubular pore cells; and Pinacocytes, epidermal cells. Though the different cell types create an organized, macroscopic multicellular structure—the visible sponge—they are not organized into true interconnected tissues. This is illustrated by the fact that a sponge broken up in a blender will reaggregate from the surviving cells. If individually separated, however, the particular cell types cannot survive alone. Simpler colonial organisms, such as Volvox, differ in that their individual cells are free-living and can survive on their own if separated from the colony.

iformation


[edit] Tissues
More complex organisms such as jellyfish, coral and sea anemones possess a tissue level of organization, in which differentiated, interconnected cells perform specialized functions as a group. For instance, jellyfish tissues include an epidermis and nerve net that perform protective and sensory functions, along with an inner gastrodermis that performs digestive functions. The overall spatial organization of differentiated cells is a topic of study in anatomy. fdhlgdfjgfj


[edit] Organs and organ systems
Even more complex organisms, while also possessing differentiated cells and tissues, possess an organ level of development, wherein multiple tissues group to form organs with a specific function or functions. Organs can be as primitive as the brain of a flatworm (merely a grouping of ganglion cells), as large as the stem of a sequoia (up to 90 meters (300 feet) in height), or as complex and multifunctional as a vertebrate liver.

The most complex organisms (such as mammals, trees, and flowers) have organ systems wherein groups of organs act together to perform complex related functions, with each organ focusing on a subset of the task. An example would be a vertebrate digestive system, in which the mouth and esophagus ingest food, the stomach crushes and liquifies it, the pancreas and gall bladder synthesize and release digestive enzymes, and the intestines absorb nutrients into the blood.


[edit] Evolutionary history
The oldest known taxonomically resolved multicellular organism is a red algae, Bangiomorpha pubescens, found fossilized in 1.2 billion year old rock from the Ectasian period of the Mesoproterozoic era.[1]

In order to reproduce, true multicellular organisms must solve the problem of regenerating a whole organism from germ cells (i.e. sperm and egg cells), an issue that is studied in developmental biology. Therefore, the development of sexual reproduction in unicellular organisms during the Ectasian period is thought to have precipitated the development and rise of multicellular life.

Multicellular organisms also face the challenge of cancer, which occurs when cells fail to regulate their growth
differentiation
cells that do the job within the organism, Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a "type". The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions.

A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent. These cells are called stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that is able to differentiate into all cell types is known as totipotent. In mammals, only the zygote and early embryonic cells are totipotent, while in plants, many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques.In most multicellular organisms, not all cells are alike. For example, cells that make up the human skin are different from cells that make up the inner organs. Yet, all of the different cell types in the human body are all derived from a single fertilized egg cell through differentiation. Differentiation is the process by which an unspecialized cell becomes specialized into one of the many cells that make up the body, such as a heart, liver, or muscle cell. During differentiation, certain genes are turned on, or become activated, while other genes are switched off, or inactivated. This process is intricately regulated. As a result, a differentiated cell will develop specific structures and perform certain functions.

Differentiation can involve changes in numerous aspects of cell physiology; size, shape, polarity, metabolic activity, responsiveness to signals, and gene expression profiles can all change during differentiation.

In cytopathology the level of cellular differentiation is used as a measure of cancer progression. "Grade" is a marker of how differentiated a cell in a tumor
exmple of nerve cells transmititting mesages throughtout the body
they are star shaped cells with a long projection at one end and many branches at the other
-This form allows grab info from other cells with their branches and transmit ifo to other cells along theri projection,--this allows them to grab info from other cells with theri branches and trirsmit info to other cells Three basic categories of cells make up the mammalian body: germ cells, somatic cells, and stem cells. Each of the approximately 100,000,000,000,000 (1014) cells in an adult human has its own copy, or copies, of the genome, with the only exception being certain cell types that lack nuclei in their fully differentiated state, such as red blood cells. The majority of the cells are diploid, meaning they have two copies of each chromosome. This category of cells, called somatic cells, includes most of the cells that make up the human body, such as skin and muscle cells.

Germ line cells are any line of cells that give rise to gametes—eggs and sperm—and are continuous through the generations. Stem cells, on the other hand, have the ability to divide for indefinite periods and to give rise to specialized cells. They are best described in the context of normal human development.

Development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg and creates a single cell that has the potential to form an entire organism. In the first hours after fertilization, this cell divides into identical cells. In humans, approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell division, these cells begin to specialize, forming a hollow sphere of cells, called a blastocyst. The blastocyst has an outer layer of cells, and inside this hollow sphere, there is a cluster of cells called the inner cell mass. The cells of the inner cell mass will go on to form virtually all of the tissues of the human body. Although the cells of the inner cell mass can form virtually every type of cell found in the human body, they cannot form an organism. These cells are referred to as pluripotent.

Pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent progenitor cells that then give rise to functional cells. Examples of stem and progenitor cells include:
red blood cells
are almost completely empty innernally and this allows them to perform their function of transporting oxygen and nutrients throughout the body.
-(Indeed, all the spacethat is liberated by eliminating internal cellular structures allow blood cells to be (VERY GOOD TRANSPORTERS)
red blod cells cont
These cells are also very flexible and this allows them to fit throught the very tiny blood vessels found in some parts of the body
CELL DIFFRENITATION
Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a "type".
-The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions.

- cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent.
\- These cells are called stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that is able to differentiate into all cell types is known as totipotent.
-In mammals, only the zygote and early embryonic cells are totipotent, while in plants, many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques
CELL DIFFERENTIATION PART 2 OVERVIEW
In most multicellular organisms, not all cells are alike. For example, cells that make up the human skin are different from cells that make up the inner organs. Yet, all of the different cell types in the human body are all derived from a single fertilized egg cell through differentiation. Differentiation is the process by which an unspecialized cell becomes specialized into one of the many cells that make up the body, such as a heart, liver, or muscle cell.
-During differentiation, certain genes are turned on, or become activated, while other genes are switched off, or inactivated. This process is intricately regulated.
-As a result, a differentiated cell will develop specific structures and perform certain functions.

-Differentiation can involve changes in numerous aspects of cell physiology; size, shape, polarity, metabolic activity, responsiveness to signals, and gene expression profiles can all change during differentiation.

-In cytopathology the level of cellular differentiation is used as a measure of cancer progression. "Grade" is a marker of how differentiated a cell in a tumor is.
fLEXIBLITY OF RED BLOOD CELLS
VERY FLEXIBLE AND THIS ALLOWS THEM TO THROUGH THE VERY TINY BLOOD VESSELS FOUND IN SOME PARTS OF THE BODY
CELL ORGANIZATON
In cell biology, an organelle is a discrete structure of a cell having specialized functions, and is separately enclosed in its own lipid membrane. There are many types of organelles, particularly in the eukaryotic cells of higher organisms. Prokaryotes were once thought not to have any organelles, but some examples have now been identified, although these are not widespread.

The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are to cells what an organ is to the body (hence the name organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive). Organelles are identified through the use of microscopy, and can also be identified by cell fractionation.
eNERGY USE-
In biology, the sustenance of life itself is critically dependent on energy transformations; living organisms survive because of exchange of energy within and without. In a living organism chemical bonds are constantly broken and made to make the exchange and transformation of energy possible. These chemical bonds are most often bonds in carbohydrates, including sugars.
mETABLISM
Metabolism is the complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells.

These processes are the basis of life, allowing cells to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments.

-Metabolism is usually divided into two categories.
-Catabolism yields energy, an example being the breakdown of food in cellular respiration.
- Anabolism, on the other hand, uses this energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.

-The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed into another by a sequence of enzymes. Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow cells to drive desirable but thermodynamically unfavorable reactions by coupling them to favorable ones.
-Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or signals from other cells.

The metabolism of an organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which it will find poisonous.
-For example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals.[1] The speed of metabolism, the metabolic rate, also influences how much food an organism will require.

-A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways between even vastly different species. For example, the set of chemical intermediates in the citric acid cycle are found universally, among living cells as diverse as the unicellular bacteria Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants.[2] This shared metabolic structure is most likely the result of the high efficiency of these pathways, and of their early appearance in evolutionary history.[3][4]
AUTOTROPHS
-An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy, such as light or chemical reactions of inorganic ompounds.
-Autotrophs are a vital part of the food chains of all ecosystems. They take energy from the environment (sunlight or inorganic sources) and use it to process carbon-based and other organic molecules that are used to carry out various biological functions such as cell growth
-Autotrophs are considered producers in a food chain.
-Plants and other organisms that carry out photosynthesis are phototrophs (or photoautotrophs).
-Bacteria that utilize the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonium or ferrous iron as an energy source are chemoautotrophs (some are known as lithotrophs
HETROTROPHS
heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. A heterotroph is known as a consumer in the food chain. Contrast with autotrophs which use inorganic carbon dioxide or bicarbonate as sole carbon source. All animals are heterotrophic, as well as fungi and many bacteria.
-Some parasitic plants have also turned fully or partially heterotrophic, whereas carnivorous plants use their flesh diet to augment their nitrogen supply, but are still autotrophic.

Heterotrophs are unable to synthesize organic, carbon based compounds independently from the inorganic environment's sources (e.g. Animalia, unlike Plantae, cannot photosynthesize) and therefore must obtain their nutrition from another heterotroph or an autotroph.
DECOMPOSTERS
Decomposers and scavengers break down dead plants and animals. They also break down the waste (poop) of other organisms. Decomposers are very important for any ecosystem. If they weren't in the ecosystem, the plants would not get essential nutrients, and dead matter and waste would pile up.

There are two kinds of decomposers, scavengers and decomposers.

Scavengers are animals that find dead animals or plants and eat them. While they eat them, they break them into small bits. In this simulation, flies, wasps and cockroaches are scavengers. Earthworms are also scavengers, but they only break down plants.

Once a scavenger is done, the decomposers take over, and finish the job. Many kinds of decomposers are microscopic, meaning that they can't be seen without a microscope. Others, like fungi, can be seen.

Different kinds of decomposers do different jobs in the ecosystem.

Others, like some kinds of bacteria, prefer breaking down meat or waste from carnivores
Homeostatis defined
All organisms have a set of internal condictions which they must be able to maintain in a stable range in order tro remain alive:
these conditions include: temp., h20, pH and others
-organisms need energy in order to maintain this internal stability
Cell growth-all organisms gwon and change
-The chemical identity at cell level directly depends on the gene pool. All cells of an organism have the same chemical identity and can recognize one another. Each one carries markers of its identity on its membrane: human leukocyte antigens (HLA system).
Whatever specialization cells have (nerve, skin, heart...), they all retain the identity of the organism. So the biological identity is specific to each organism and stays the same in each of its cells. Only twins have the same chemical identity.
-The chemical identity at cell level directly depends on the gene pool. All cells of an organism have the same chemical identity and can recognize one another. Each one carries markers of its identity on its membrane: human leukocyte antigens (HLA system).
Whatever specialization cells have (nerve, skin, heart...), they all retain the identity of the organism. So the biological identity is specific to each organism and stays the same in each of its cells. Only twins have the same chemical identity.
Single-celled org. also grwo buthe they only become slightly larger
cell reproduction-creation of more of the same organism
-Cell reproduction is asexual.

The process of cell reproduction has three major parts. The first part of cell reproduction involves the replication of the parental cell's DNA. The second major issue is the separation of the duplicated DNA into two equally sized groups of chromosomess. The third major aspect of cell reproduction is the physical division of entire cells, usually called cytokinesis.

Cell reproduction is more complex in eukaryotes than in other organisms. Prokaryotic cells such as bacterial cells reproduce by binary fission, a process that includes DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. Eukaryotic cell reproduction either involves mitosis or a more complex process called meiosis. Mitosis and meiosis are sometimes called the two "nuclear division" processes. Binary fission is similar to eukaryotic cell reproduction that involves mitosis. Both lead to the production of two daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parental cell. Meiosis is used for a special cell reproduction process of diploid organisms. It produces four special daughter cells (gametes) which have half the normal cellular amount of DNA. A male and a female gamete can then combine to produce a zygote, a cell which again has the normal amount of chromosomes.
Example fo cell reproduction
-If you do not reproduce, you can still live a healthy life; if, however, no human being reproduced ever again, the human species would eventually die out
The cell factory-Mitochondrea
POWERHOUSE
The cell factory-CYTOSKELETON
STRUCTURE
The cell factory-NUCLEOUS-CONTROL TOWER
CONTROL CENTER
The cell factory-ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
ASSEMBLY LINE
CELL AS A FACTORY-RIBOSOMES
WORKBENCH
CELL AS A FACTORY-GOLGI COMPLEX
DISTRIBUTION CENTER
CELL AS A FACTORY-LYSOMES
CLEANING CREW
CELL AS A FACTORY-CELL MEMBRANE
SECURITY GATE
4 PARTS OF THE NUCLEUS
NUCLEAR POOR
DNA
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
NUCLEOLUS
PHOTOSYNTHESIS FORMULA
SUNLIGHT+H2O+CO2(FORMS OXYGEN)+O2+SUGER(GLUECOSE)
RESPIRATION FORMULA
OXYGEN+ GLUCOSE COMBINE TO FORM CARBON DIOXIDE+ WATER+ENERGY
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS-ONCE AN ORGAISM ALIVE WHAT MUST SCIENTISTS TO DO?
CLASSIFY THEM INTO THE GROUPS
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS-TAXONOMY
Taxonomy is the practice and
-Taxonomy – the classification of organisms into a system that indicates natural relationships (evolutionary relationships); the theory and practice of describing, naming, and classifying organisms.


science of classification. The word comes from the Greek ce'. Taxonomies, or taxonomic schemes, are composed of taxonomic units known as taxa (singular taxon), or kinds of things that are arranged frequently in a hierarchical structure, typically related by subtype-supertype relationships, also called parent-child relationships. In such a subtype-supertype relationship the subtype kind of thing has by definition the same constraints as the supertype kind of thing plus one or more additional constraints. For example, car is a subtype of vehicle. So any car is also a vehicle, but not every vehicle is a car. So, a thing needs to satisfy more constraints to be a car than to be a vehicle.
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS-EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS
betweenm organisms(how closely related) all have 7 taxons
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS-7 taxons
or groups groups going from brodest to narrowist:
KINGDOM
PHYLUM
CLASS
CORDER
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS
ORGAINSMS IN A SPECIES ARE VERY CLOSELY RELATED AND HAVE MANY CHARACTERISTICS IN COMMON ORGANISMS IN A KINGDOM ARE FERY DISTINTLY RELATED
-ONLY HAVE A FEW GENERAL CHARACTERISTCS INCOMMON
LINNAN SYSTEM OF BINOMIAL NOMECLATURE
Linnaean taxonomy is a method of classifying living things originally devised by, and named for, Carl Linnaeus although it has changed considerably since his time. The greatest innovation of Linnaeus, and still the most important aspect of this system, is the general use of binomial nomenclature, the combination of a genus name and a single specific epithet to uniquely identify each species of organism. For example, the human species is uniquely identified by the binomial Homo sapiens. No other species of animal can have this binomial. Prior to Linnaean taxonomy, animals were classified according to their mode of movement.

All species are classified in a ranked hierarchy, originally starting with kingdoms although domains have since been added as a rank above the kingdoms. Kingdoms are divided into phyla (singular: phylum) — for animals; the term division, used for plants and fungi, is equivalent to the rank of phylum (and the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature allows the use of either term). Phyla (or divisions) are divided into classes, and they, in turn, into orders, families, genera (singular: genus), and
DOMAIN ANOTHER TAXON
HAS BEEN ADDED TO THE CLASSIF.
SYSTEM, BROADER SYSTEM THEN KINGDOM AND DIVIDES INTO THREE GROUPS
DOMAINS
Three Domain System: 3 Domains Bacteria-eubacteria
Archaea-archaebacteria
Eukarya-protists, fungi, plants, animals
DOMAIN ARCHAEA
unicellular and prokaryotic members, live in extreme envvironments; valcanic hot springss, birine pools, and black organic mud. cell wall lack peptidoglycan andd their cell membrances contain unusual lipids the aren't found in otheer organisms.have thick rigid cell walls.
DOMMAIN-EUBACTERIA
unicellular and prokaryotic cells have thick rigid cell walls, surrounding a cell membrane; made of peptidoglycan.
contains the kingdom eubacteria
DOMAIN-EUKARYOTA
consists of all organisms that have a nucleaus.
organized into four groups :Groups of Eukarya protista
fungi
plantae
animalia
4 KINGDOMES OF THE Eukaryota domain-PROTISTA
kingdo composed of eikaryotes that arte not clasified as plants, animals, or fungi. most are single celled but some are multi some are photsymthetic and others are hetorotrophic
4 KINGDOMES OF THE Eukaryota domain-FUNGI
hetorotrophs, most are multi cell. some are unic cell.
includes mushrooms and yeast Used in Bread, ligure, beer, and some medicines
4 KINGDOMES OF THE Eukaryota domain-PLANTA
multi cell. photosyumthetic autotrophs, nonmitle-cannot move from place to place, cell walls contain not cellulose, incldues cone bvearing and flowering palnts, mosss and ferns.
4 KINGDOMES OF THE Eukaryota domain-Animalia
multi cell. heteroptrophic, do not have cell walls,
-All animals are members of the Kingdom Animalia, also called Metazoa. This Kingdom does not contain the prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera, includes bacteria, blue-green algae) or the protists (Kingdom Protista, includes unicellular eukaryotic organisms). All members of the Animalia are multicellular, and all are heterotrophs (that is, they rely directly or indirectly on other organisms for their nourishment). Most ingest food and digest it in an internal cavity.
C) human body systems-Level 1
cells
basic unit of life
C) human body systems-Level 2
tissue
There are four basic types of tissue in the body of all animals, including the human body and lower multicellular organisms such as insects. These compose all the organs, structures and other contents.

Epithelium - Tissues composed of layers of cells that cover organ surfaces such as surface of the skin and inner lining of digestive tract: the tissues that serve for protection, secretion, and absorption.
Connective tissue - As the name suggests, connective tissue holds everything together. Connective tissue is characterized by the separation of the cells by an inorganic material, which is called extracellular matrix. Bone and blood are connective tissues.
Muscle tissue - Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. Muscle tissue also is separated into three distinct categories: visceral or smooth muscle, which is found in the inner linings of organs; skeletal muscle, which is found attached to bone in order for mobility to take place; and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart.
Nervous tissue - Cells forming the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.
C) human body systems-Level 3
organs
there work together to perform a specific activity:inlcudes heart, brain, skin
C) human body systems-Level 4
organ systems
Organ Systems
Organ systems are composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function. There are 10 major organ systems in the human body, they are the: cirulatory system
-NERVOUS SYSTEM
-SKELETAL SYSTEM
BODY HAS 11 ORGAN SYSTEM
C) human body systems-Level 5-ORGANISMS
this is the ENTIRE living thing that can carry out all basic life systems
HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS-SKELETOL
The main role of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body, to protect delicate internal organs and to provide attachment sites for the organs.
Major Organs:
Bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments.
HUMAN BODY SYSTEM-MUSCLE
Major Role:
The main role of the muscular system is to provide movement. Muscles work in pairs to move limbs and provide the organism with mobility. Muscles also control the movement of materials through some organs, such as the stomach and intestine, and the heart and circulatory system.
Major Organs:
Skeletal muscles and smooth muscles throughout the body.
NERVOUS SYSTEM-NERVOUS
Major Role:
The main role of the nervous system is to relay electrical signals through the body. The nervous system directs behaviour and movement and, along with the endocrine system, controls physiological processes such as digestion, circulation, etc.
Major Organs:
Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
DOMAIN ARCHAEA
unicellular and prokaryotic members, live in extreme envvironments; valcanic hot springss, birine pools, and black organic mud. cell wall lack peptidoglycan andd their cell membrances contain unusual lipids the aren't found in otheer organisms.have thick rigid cell walls.
DOMMAIN-EUBACTERIA
unicellular and prokaryotic cells have thick rigid cell walls, surrounding a cell membrane; made of peptidoglycan.
contains the kingdom eubacteria
DOMAIN-EUKARYOTA
consists of all organisms that have a nucleaus.
organized into four groups :Groups of Eukarya protista
fungi
plantae
animalia
4 KINGDOMES OF THE Eukaryota domain-PROTISTA
kingdo composed of eikaryotes that arte not clasified as plants, animals, or fungi. most are single celled but some are multi some are photsymthetic and others are hetorotrophic
4 KINGDOMES OF THE Eukaryota domain-FUNGI
hetorotrophs, most are multi cell. some are unic cell.
includes mushrooms and yeast Used in Bread, ligure, beer, and some medicines
4 KINGDOMES OF THE Eukaryota domain-PLANTA
multi cell. photosyumthetic autotrophs, nonmitle-cannot move from place to place, cell walls contain not cellulose, incldues cone bvearing and flowering palnts, mosss and ferns.
4 KINGDOMES OF THE Eukaryota domain-Animalia
multi cell. heteroptrophic, do not have cell walls,
-All animals are members of the Kingdom Animalia, also called Metazoa. This Kingdom does not contain the prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera, includes bacteria, blue-green algae) or the protists (Kingdom Protista, includes unicellular eukaryotic organisms). All members of the Animalia are multicellular, and all are heterotrophs (that is, they rely directly or indirectly on other organisms for their nourishment). Most ingest food and digest it in an internal cavity.
C) human body systems-Level 1
cells
basic unit of life
C) human body systems-Level 2
tissue
There are four basic types of tissue in the body of all animals, including the human body and lower multicellular organisms such as insects. These compose all the organs, structures and other contents.

Epithelium - Tissues composed of layers of cells that cover organ surfaces such as surface of the skin and inner lining of digestive tract: the tissues that serve for protection, secretion, and absorption.
Connective tissue - As the name suggests, connective tissue holds everything together. Connective tissue is characterized by the separation of the cells by an inorganic material, which is called extracellular matrix. Bone and blood are connective tissues.
Muscle tissue - Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. Muscle tissue also is separated into three distinct categories: visceral or smooth muscle, which is found in the inner linings of organs; skeletal muscle, which is found attached to bone in order for mobility to take place; and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart.
Nervous tissue - Cells forming the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.
C) human body systems-Level 3
organs
there work together to perform a specific activity:inlcudes heart, brain, skin
C) human body systems-Level 4
organ systems
Organ Systems
Organ systems are composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function. There are 10 major organ systems in the human body, they are the: cirulatory system
-NERVOUS SYSTEM
-SKELETAL SYSTEM
BODY HAS 11 ORGAN SYSTEM
C) human body systems-Level 5-ORGANISMS
this is the ENTIRE living thing that can carry out all basic life systems
HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS-SKELETOL
The main role of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body, to protect delicate internal organs and to provide attachment sites for the organs.
Major Organs:
Bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments.
HUMAN BODY SYSTEM-MUSCLE
Major Role:
The main role of the muscular system is to provide movement. Muscles work in pairs to move limbs and provide the organism with mobility. Muscles also control the movement of materials through some organs, such as the stomach and intestine, and the heart and circulatory system.
Major Organs:
Skeletal muscles and smooth muscles throughout the body.
NERVOUS SYSTEM-NERVOUS
Major Role:
The main role of the nervous system is to relay electrical signals through the body. The nervous system directs behaviour and movement and, along with the endocrine system, controls physiological processes such as digestion, circulation, etc.
Major Organs:
Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Major Role:
The main role of the digestive system is to breakdown and absorb nutrients that are necessary for growth and maintenance.
Major Organs:
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines.
RESPRIATORY SYSTEM
Major Role:
The main role of the respiratory system is to provide gas exchange between the blood and the environment. Primarily, oxygen is absorbed from the atmosphere into the body and carbon dioxide is expelled from the body.
Major Organs:
Nose, trachea and lungs.
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Major Role:
The main role of the circulatory system is to transport nutrients, gases (such as oxygen and CO2), hormones and wastes through the body.
Major Organs:
Heart, blood vessels and blood.
URINARY SYSTEM
Major Role:
The main role of the excretory system is to filter out cellular wastes, toxins and excess water or nutrients from the circulatory system.
Major Organs:
Kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Major Role:
The main role of the endocrine system is to relay chemical messages through the body. In conjunction with the nervous system, these chemical messages help control physiological processes such as nutrient absorption, growth, etc.
Major Organs:
Many glands exist in the body that secrete endocrine hormones. Among these are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas and adrenal glands.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSEM
The skin is the largest organ in the body: 12-15% of body weight, with a surface area of 1-2 meters. Skin is continuous with, but structurally distinct from mucous membranes that line the mouth, anus, urethra, and vagina. Two distinct layers occur in the skin: the dermis and epidermis. The basic cell type of the epidermis is the keratinocyte, which contain keratin, a fibrous protein. Basal cells are the innermost layer of the epidermis. Melanocytes produce the pigment melanin, and are also in the inner layer of the epidermis. The dermis is a connective tissue layer under the epidermis, and contains nerve endings, sensory receptors, capillaries, and elastic fibers.

The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis, including protection, temperature regulation, sensory reception, biochemical synthesis, and absorption. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body.
IMMUNE SYSTEM
Major Role:
The main role of the immune system is to destroy and remove invading microbes and viruses from the body. The lymphatic system also removes fat and excess fluids from the blood.
Major Organs:
Lymph, lymph nodes and vessels, white blood cells, T- and B- cells.
REPRODUCTIVE
Major Role:
The main role of the reproductive system is to manufacture cells that allow reproduction. In the male, sperm are created to inseminate egg cells produced in the female.
Major Organs:
Female (top): ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina and mammary glands.
Male (bottom): testes, seminal vesicles and penis.
how organisms obtain and use energy-photosynthesis
Energy in the form of food is the key to staying alive.



• Every living thing has to have ways to get energy.



• In human life, this process is called "Making a Living."



PhotoSynthesis

(photo)"light"
+
(synthesis)
"putting together"
• Life's second great invention was to find a way to use light to make a living.



• Photosynthesis transforms radiant light energy into chemical energy.




Photosynthesis is a way of packaging and storing energy that originated in the sun.
Primary consumers-grazing
Animals such as snails, deer, grasshoppers, rabbits and monkeys eat leaves, usually without killing the plants. Many others eat seeds, flowers and fruits.
These primary consumers package the sunlight energy as a mixture of proteins and fats we call meat.
Primary consumers
depend on plants and algae.
preditor-carnivous
Carnivorous animals such as frogs, shrews, snakes, owls, skunks, ladybird beetles and mink, kill and eat other animals.

These secondary consumers package the sunlight energy as a mixture of proteins and fats we call meat.

Predators depend on grazers and browsers and on other predators.
All of the following ways:Parasititism:
A Lazy Way
Parasitic plants and animals, such as mistletoe and leeches, take food from other organisms, usually without killing them, but give nothing in return.
Parasites usually live attached to, or inside, the host organism.
Most parasites depend on a single species they co-evolved with.
Interliving:
The Win-Win Way Symbiotic organisms combine to live mutually so that both partners benefit.
Plant and animal cells originated as a symbiosis of different kinds of bacteria.
Virtually all plants combine their roots with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to help them absorb nutrients. Also see
Gas Exchange

Symbionts depend on each other.
Detritus--Feeding: A Clean-Up Way Detritus is organic particles left after plants or animals are partially decomposed. Earthworms and many oceanic bottom-dwelling worms are detritus feeders and play a vital role in re-cycling organisms. Many insects and fungi are detritus feeders.
Detritus-feeders depend on dead organisms, mostly plants.

Scavenging: A Necessary Way Scavengers, such as vultures and jackals, feed on dead animals. They are carnivores who wait to feed until their prey are dead. Many carnivores are part-time scavengers.
Scavengers prepare bodies for decomposers.
Scavengers depend on non-microscopic dead animals.
Decomposing: The Recycling Way Many
Parasitic plants and animals, such as mistletoe and leeches, take food from other organisms, usually without killing them, but give nothing in return.
Parasites usually live attached to, or inside, the host organism.
Most parasites depend on a single species they co-evolved with.
Interliving:
The Win-Win Way Symbiotic organisms combine to live mutually so that both partners benefit.
Plant and animal cells originated as a symbiosis of different kinds of bacteria.
Virtually all plants combine their roots with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to help them absorb nutrients. Also see
Gas Exchange

Symbionts depend on each other.
Detritus--Feeding: A Clean-Up Way Detritus is organic particles left after plants or animals are partially decomposed. Earthworms and many oceanic bottom-dwelling worms are detritus feeders and play a vital role in re-cycling organisms. Many insects and fungi are detritus feeders.
Detritus-feeders depend on dead organisms, mostly plants.

Scavenging: A Necessary Way Scavengers, such as vultures and jackals, feed on dead animals. They are carnivores who wait to feed until their prey are dead. Many carnivores are part-time scavengers.
Scavengers prepare bodies for decomposers.
Scavengers depend on non-microscopic dead animals.
Decomposing: The Recycling Way Many bacteria and fungi feed on dead organisms and break them down into their chemical parts.
Decomposers restore life-materials to the ecological nutrient cycles and prepare them for re-use.
Decomposers depend on dead organisms of all sizes
Important Nutrients-4 categories of molecules that make up three living things
3 of these are nutrients
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nuclic acids
Important Nutrients-carbohydares
simple and complex sugers, they contain oxygen, hydrogen and carbon atoms, in a fixed ratio 1 to 2 to 1. Certain carbohydrates are important for energy storage and transport. In plat cells, carbohydrates, are also important instruction structural componets
Important Nutrients-lipids-don't like water
Lipis are fats. YOu can think of mixing water and oil it is not compatible
Important Nutrients-proteins
Proteins are made up of amino acids. any proteins are enzymes that speed up chemical reaction in the cell, while others are importat for cell signaling and the summer response
Important Nutrient-nucleic aci, which are the building blocks
There are two nucleic acids, DNA and Rna; both are very important in the storage and trnasmission of genetic information. While we don't really get DNA or RNA IN our diet, teh food we eat could possess nucleotides, which are the building blocks of the nucleic acids
teach demonstrates a know of charc and classification
of life
teacher is aware of the levels
of organization in living things expecially humans, and understnds the basic characteristics of life
The teacher understands
how ogranisms obtain and use energy, and what moleules are important in dietary nutriets
Anatomical Evidence
there are incredible anatomical similaritis aamong organisms similarites among organisms. The class example of this vetebrate forelimb, which contains the same set of bones organized in a varity of animals that use their forelimbs for different functions
Homologous structures
Homologous Structures
Homologous structures, on the other hand, are characteristics which are shared by related species because they have been inherited in some way from a common ancestor. For example, the bones on the front fins of a whale are homologous to the bones in a human arm and both are homologous to the bones in a chimpanzee arm. The bones in all of these different body parts on different animals are basically the same bones, but their sizes are different and they serve slightly different functions in the animals where they are found.

Homologous structures provide evidence of evolution because they allow biologists to trace the evolutionary path of different species, linking them up in the larger evolutionary tree that links all life back to a common ancestor. Such structures are also strong evidence against creationism and Intelligent Design: if there were a deity who created all the different species, why use the same basic parts over and over in different creatures for different functions? Why not use completely new parts that are specially designed for specific and different purposes?

Surely a "more perfect hand" and a "more perfect flipper" could be created if based on parts designed for their specific purpose. Instead, what we have in reality are imperfect body parts — and they are imperfect in part because they are all derived from bones that originally existed for other reasons entirely. The bones were adapted, over long stretches of time, for new purposes that they needed to just barely succeed at. Evolution only requires that one be better than competitors, not that one be the best that's theoretically possible. This is why imperfect features and structures are the norm in the natural world.

As a matter of fact, the entirely biological world can be said to be composed of homologous structures: all of life is based on the same types of nucleotides and the same amino acids. Why? A perfect and intelligent designer could easily create life from a variety of animo acids and DNA structures, all specifically suited for particular purposes. The presence of the same chemical structures in all of life is evidence that all of life is related and developed from a common ancestor. The scientific evidence is unambiguous: no gods or other designers had a hand in the develop of life generally or human life in particular. We are what we are because of our evolutionary inheritance, not because of the desires or will of any deities.
Analogous structures
A body part similar in function to that of another organism, but at best superficially similar in structure. The functional similarities of analogous structures are regarded within Darwinism not as evidence of inheritance from a common ancestor, as in homology, but as evidence of environmental pressure inducing the same function
Vestigial structures
Vestigial structures are often called vestigial organs, although many of them are not actually organs. These are typically in a degenerate, atrophied, or rudimentary condition,[1] and tend to be much more variable than similar parts. Although structures usually called "vestigial" are largely or entirely functionless, a vestigial structure may retain lesser functions or develop new ones.[2] Thus, a "vestigial wing" is one useless for flight, but may serve some other purpose. Vestigial characters range on a continuum from detrimental through neutral to marginally useful. Some may be of some limited utility to an organism but still degenerate over time; the important point is not that they are without utility, but that they do not confer a significant enough advantage in terms of fitness to avoid the random force of disorder that is mutation. It is difficult however to say that a vestigial character is detrimental to the organism in the long term - the future is unpredictable, and that which is of no use in the present may develop into something useful in the future.

Vestigiality is one of several lines of evidence for biological evolution. It has also been used as an argument against the existence of God, and the subject is thus a controversial one, with many religious parties attempting to disprove the existence of vestiges.
Biochemical evidence
All organisms use nucleotides to construct genetic information:
-ALL ORGANISMS USE NUCLEOTIDES TOT CONSTRUCT GENETIC INFORMATION; all organisms share the genetic code and perform many of the same chemical reactions
AGENTS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE
muttation and Variation
any change in the "normal" genetic make-up of an organism
B.What are the 2 types of mutations? gene mutations and chromosome mutations
How are gene mutations caused? caused by changing the DNA code for a single trait
AGENTS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE-Genetic Drift
In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the survival of alleles (variants of a gene). The effect may cause an allele, and the biological trait that it confers, to become more common or more rare over successive generations. Ultimately, the drift may either remove the allele from the gene pool or remove all other alleles. Whereas natural selection is the tendency of beneficial alleles to become more common over time (and detrimental ones less common), genetic drift is the fundamental tendency of any allele to vary randomly in frequency over time due to statistical variation alone, so long as it does not comprise all or none of the distribution.

Chance affects the commonality or rarity of an allele, because no trait guarantees survival of a given number of offspring. This is because survival depends on non-genetic factors (such as the possibility of being in the wrong place at the wrong time). In other words, even when individuals face the same odds, they will differ in their success. A rare succession of chance events — rather than natural selection — can thus bring a trait to predominance, causing a population or species to evolve.

An important aspect of genetic drift is that its rate is expected to depend strongly on population size as a consequence of the law of large numbers. When many individuals carry a particular allele, and all face equal odds, the number of offspring they collectively produce will only slightly differ from the expected value, which is the expected average per individual times the number of individuals. But with a small effective breeding size, a departure from the norm in one individual causes a disproportionately greater deviation from the expected result. Therefore small populations are subject to more drift than large ones.[1] This is also the basis for the founder effect, a proposed mechanism of speciation.

By definition, genetic drift has no preferred direction. A neutral allele may be expected to increase or decrease in any given generation with equal probability. Given sufficiently long time, however, the mathematics of genetic drift (cf. Galton-Watson process) predict the allele will either die out or be present in 100% of the population, after which time there is no random variation in the associated gene. Thus genetic drift tends to sweep gene variants out of a population over time, such that all members of a species would eventually be homozygous for this gene. In this regard, genetic drift opposes genetic mutation which introduces novel variants into the population according to its own random processes.
AGENTS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE-Gene flow
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another.

Migration into or out of a population may be responsible for a marked change in allele frequencies (the proportion of members carrying a particular variant of a gene). Immigration may also result in the addition of new genetic variants to the established gene pool of a particular species or population.

There are a number of factors that affect the rate of gene flow between different populations. One of the most significant factors is mobility, as greater mobility of an individual tends to give it greater migratory potential. Animals tend to be more mobile than plants, although pollen and seeds may be carried great distances by animals or wind.

Maintained gene flow between two populations can also lead to a combination of the two gene pools, reducing the genetic variation between the two groups. It is for this reason that gene flow strongly acts against speciation, by recombining the gene pools of the groups, and thus, repairing the developing differences in genetic variation that would have led to full speciation and creation of daughter species.
AGENTS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES-Natural Selection
Natural selection is the process by which favorable traits that are heritable become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable traits that are heritable become less common. Natural selection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, such that individuals with favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with less favorable phenotypes. If these phenotypes have a genetic basis, then the genotype associated with the favorable phenotype will increase in frequency in the next generation. Over time, this process can result in adaptations that specialize organisms for particular ecological niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new species.

Natural selection is one of the cornerstones of modern biology. The term was introduced by Charles Darwin in his groundbreaking 1859 book The Origin of Species[1] in which natural selection was described by analogy to artificial selection, a process by which animals with traits considered desirable by human breeders are systematically favored for reproduction. The concept of natural selection was originally developed in the absence of a valid theory of inheritance; at the time of Darwin's writing, nothing was known of modern genetics. Although Gregor Mendel, the father of modern genetics, was a contemporary of Darwin's, his work would lie in obscurity until the early 20th century. The union of traditional Darwinian evolution with subsequent discoveries in classical and molecular genetics is termed the modern evolutionary synthesis. Although other mechanisms of molecular evolution, such as the neutral theory advanced by Motoo Kimura, have been identified as important causes of genetic diversity, natural selection remains the single primary explanation for adaptive evolution.
AGENTS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE-natural selecion continued
-first natural selection chooses among ALREADY EXISTING variations: mutations ARE NOT created in order to help an organism survive (you can't wish to fly to avoid traffic)
-Variatiions exist and then the enviroment changes
-No one characteristic is absolutley "good" or "bad": how beneficial a trait depends on the envi and something that is beneficial today will not necessarily be beneficial today may not be tommorow.
D) DARWIN and the Orgin of Speicies
Natural selection is the process by which favorable traits that are heritable become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable traits that are heritable become less common. Natural selection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, such that individuals with favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with less favorable phenotypes. If these phenotypes have a genetic basis, then the genotype associated with the favorable phenotype will increase in frequency in the next generation. Over time, this process can result in adaptations that specialize organisms for particular ecological niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new species.

Natural selection is one of the cornerstones of modern biology. The term was introduced by Charles Darwin in his groundbreaking 1859 book The Origin of Species[1] in which natural selection was described by analogy to artificial selection, a process by which animals with traits considered desirable by human breeders are systematically favored for reproduction. The concept of natural selection was originally developed in the absence of a valid theory of inheritance; at the time of Darwin's writing, nothing was known of modern genetics. Although Gregor Mendel, the father of modern genetics, was a contemporary of Darwin's, his work would lie in obscurity until the early 20th century. The union of traditional Darwinian evolution with subsequent discoveries in classical and molecular genetics is termed the modern evolutionary synthesis. Although other mechanisms of molecular evolution, such as the neutral theory advanced by Motoo Kimura, have been identified as important causes of genetic diversity, natural selection remains the single primary explanation for adaptive evolution.
Whi OT ISch populations become
Adapted to the enviroment
ADAPTIONS
IS A CHARACTERISTIC THAT MAKES AN ORGANISM WELL SUITED TO ITS ENVIRONMENT
VARIATION
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS OF A SPECIES DIFFER IN PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
STRUGGLE FOR EXISTANCE
THE MEMBERS OF ALL SPECIES COMPETE WITH EACH OTHER FOR LIMITED RESOURCES (SPACE, MATES, FOOD)
Survival of the fittest
those organisms best suited for the enviroment will survie
-Organisms, with favorable traits will survive to mate passing on favorable traits to their offspring
adaptions
organisms best suited for the enviroment are said to be adapted to their enviroment
Inheritance
-favorable traits need to pass on to offspring from parent to influcence revolution
-Fitness-this is a measure of how reproduction successful an organsim and its off spring are
Defferential reprodurduction
Organism that are better adapted to the envirmment will reproduce and their offspring will make up a greatest proportion of the next generation
Giraffes-
according to Darwin the long necks represent survial mode and to reproduce and pass on the genetic trait of long neck to their offspring
teacher is able to
understand the concept of common decent, how it explains diversity and similarity among living things, and how it feeds the therory of fake evolu
teach demonstrates
knowledge of both for evidence for and agents of evoluionary change
-teacher U main points of CD therory of natural selection