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43 Cards in this Set

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Why do people study language development?
This answer is three-fold. People are influenced initially because language development represents part of a larger concern for development. Secondly, studying language development can help us understand our own behavior. Finally, people study language development because language development studies probe for the relationship between language and thought.
The linguist is primarily concerned with what type of approach?
The linguist is concerned with describing language symbols and stating the rules these symbols follow for language.
What type of approach is described by the psycholinguist?
The psycholinguist is interested in the psychological mechanisms that let language users produce and comprehend language.
The sociolinguist is interested in what type of approach?
The psycholinguist is interested in the psychological mechanisms that let language users produce and comprehend language.
The sociolinguist is interested in what type of approach?
Sociolinguists study language rules and use as a functional role, socioeconomic level, and linguistic or cultural context.
What type of approach are behavior psychologists concerned with?
Behavioral psychologists are interested in minimizing language form and emphasizing the behavioral (learned) context of language. They are also interested in eliciting responses to determine how the number of responses can be increased or decreased.
Speech-Language Pathologists primarily associate with what type of approach?
Speech-language pathologist's concentrate on disordered communication, causes of the disorders, the evaluation and extent of the disorder, and the remediation process. Each approach adds to the interest of the SLP.
What is a count study?
Count studies refer to child language studies that were cataloged and made distributional measurements of many language behaviors. Count studies dominated the 1930's and 1940's.
What behavioral psychologist developed operant conditioning?
The behavioral psychologist is B. F. Skinner.
What does operant conditioning propose?
Operant conditioning focuses on how behavior in learned. It also concludes that behavior is modified by events that follow the behavior itself.
What is a reinforcer?
Skinner describes a reinforcer as being any event that increases that probability of occurrence of a preceding behavior.
What does the term punisher mean?
According to Skinner, a punisher represents any event that decreases the probability of occurrence.
What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning is the resultant behavior change being produced.
How does Skinner describe language?
Skinner describes language as a set of 'use' rules. Skinner views language as something we do. It is a verbal behavior that can be modified by the environment.
What does extinction mean?
Extinction is the process of decreasing behavior by ignoring it.
What is considered a discriminative stimulus?
This type of stimulus is acquired when the presence of someone or something elicits a verbal response.
What is successive approximation?
Skinner describes successive approximation as being, "Any response which vaguely resembles the standard behavior of the community is reinforced. When these begin to appear frequently, a closer approximation is insisted upon."
How does Skinner describe the word mand?
A mand is a verbal behavior that specifies its reinforcer. In general, mands include commands, demands, and requests.
How does Skinner describe the word echoic?
Echoic is defined as being any response that is imitated.
What is an intraverbal response?
An intraverbal response is one that includes small talk, response with no one-to-one correspondence with the verbal stimuli that evoke them. Conversations depend on intraverbal responses
What is the meaning of tact?
A tact is used in response to a nonverbal stimulus as well as to things and events that speakers discuss. Tacts include naming, labeling, and commenting.
What are autoclitic responses?
These types of responses are those that influence or are influenced by, the behavior of the speaker. Autoclitic functions also include ordering of words in sentences.
What are several limitations found within a strict behavioralist approach?
These limitations include areas like reinforcement, imitation, and syntactic development.
How are behavioralist techniques used today?
These techniques provide the basis for remedial programs used with children who have delayed or disordered language.
Who was the leading proponent of psycholinguistic theory?
Noam Chomsky
What is Chomsky's definition of phrase-structure rules?
These rules delineate the basic relationship underlying all sentence organization, regardless of the language being used.
What does Chomsky consider to be transformational rules?
These rules govern the rearrangement of phrase-structure elements based on a specific language and are not universal.
What are constituents?
Constituents are units within each sentence. A description of sentence units would be called a constituent analysis.
What are noun phrases?
Noun phrases are nominal constituents that consist of a single word or phrase that can act as a noun.
What are verb phrases?
Verbal phrases or verbal constituents must include the verb plus any additional words or phrases that might be needed to complete the verb.
What do transformational rules attempt to do?
These rules occupy a second set of rules, according to Chomsky, that address theoretical inadequacies. Transformational rules also make an attempt to describe contextual relatedness within sentences.
What is the meaning of the deep structure?
The deep structure is found in the brain and is generated by the phrase-structure rules. This structure also contains the basic meaning of a sentence.
What is a surface structure considered to be?
A surface structure is an actual sentence that we say, write or sign.
How does Chomsky clarify the assumption seen in universal language development within children?
he LAD allows each child to process incoming language and to form hypotheses based on the regularities found within the language.
How is the government binding theory described?
After the 1960's, Chomsky formulated the government-binding theory in an attempt to describe the way in which the human mind represents the autonomous system of language.
What are some limitations seen within Chomsky's transformational grammar rules and government-binding theory?
Also, Chomsky's ideas do not follow the development of later language learners.
What is case grammar?
Case grammar is a generative system that attempts to explain the influence of semantics on the syntactic structure of language.
How is a case described?
A case is a distinct semantic role or function for a certain noun phrase.
What are the seven universal cases used to describe nouns?
The seven cases are agentive, dative, experiencer, facitive, instrumental, locative, and objective.
What does the term rich interpretation mean?
Rich interpretation is the semantic analysis of child language in relation to the intended meaning
What is illocutionary force?
Illocutionary force is the speaker's attitude toward the proposition.
What is joint reference?
Joint reference is the achievement of shared attention on an object or event.
What is one contribution from the sociolinguistic approach?
This act of communication itself is reinforcing