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53 Cards in this Set

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Matter cannont be created or destroyed, but can be
changed:the same hold true for energy: Indeed, the change in one is often accompanied by aa change in the other
There are examples of what all around us;
energy and matter transmormations
through electris is present in nature, humans
must utilize other sources of energy in order to produce electricity. generators are machines that convert mecanical energy into electrical energy and they do this in a variety of ways
Things such as self heating cans and hot/cold packs
take advantage of the heat energy released or absorbed by chemical reactions
the teacher understands what
the matter and energy are conserved, through perhaps in different forms
Conversation of matter and energy-part 1
during and ordinary chemical change, there is no detectable increase in the quantity of matter
Conversation of matter and energy-part 2
Essentialy this means that matter is neither created or destroyed, A good example of this concept is found in the food chain
Conversation of matter and energy-part 3
the main a food chain is recycled, moving from plants to the animals that eat these animals
Conversation of matter and energy-part 4
It would seem that the food chain stops at the lion eating the zebra because it eats the lion
Conversation of matter and energy-part 5
The answer is many, once a lion dies, there are other animals that feed its body These two types of organisms return the nutrients in the lion's body to the soil,
Conversation of matter and energy-part 6
where they are picked up once again by plants and put back into the food chain
Conversation of matter and energy-part 7
though matter can neither be created nor destroyed, matter can be cchanged (as in the rearrangent of atoms in a chemical reaction
Conversation of matter and energy-part 8
these things are almost always accompanied by the conversion of one form of energy into another
Conversation of matter and energy-part 9
Take example of photosynthisis mentioned in a previous lessons
Conversation of matter and energy-part 10
plants take certain compounds and chang accomanying this change them into food and oxygen; the radiant energy of the sun is changed into chemical energy found in nutrients
Conversation of matter and energy-part 11-THE LAW OF CONVERSATION OF ENERGY
STATES THAT ENERGY CANNOT BE COREATED OR DESTORYED, BUT CANCHANGE ITS FORM. Electrical energy can be changed into either mechanical light, heat or potential energy without chemical changes
Conversation of matter and energy-part 12
Mechanical energy is converteted into electrical energy in a genarator
Conversation of matter and energy-part 13
potential and kinetic energy can be converted inot one another: the kinetic energy can be converted into one another: the kinetic energy of a rock being pushed up a hill turns into the pot. energy of the rock sitting on top of a hill waiting to tumble down
Conversation of matter and energy-part 14
Many other conversions are possible but all of the energy involved in the change always appears in some form after the change is completed.
Matther and energy- The electrical charge used to turn on the light bulb becomes
light energy and heat ( if bulb becomes light energy and heat (if you've every touched a light bulb, ou know that's it hot
from these two laws you can tell:
Fusion power refers to power generated by nuclear fusion reactions. In this kind of reaction, two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus and release energy. In a more general sense, the term can also refer to the production of net usable power from a fusion source, similar to the usage of the term "steam power." Most design studies for fusion power plants involve using the fusion reactions to create heat, which is then used to operate a steam turbine, similar to most coal-fired power stations as well as fission-driven nuclear power stations.

The largest current experiment, JET, has resulted in fusion power production slightly less than the power put into the plasma, maintaining an output of 16 MW for a few seconds. In June 2005, the construction of the experimental reactor ITER, designed to produce several times more fusion power than the power put into the plasma over many minutes, was announced. The production of net electrical power from fusion is planned for DEMO, the next generation experiment after ITER.
AS already mentioned, electricity power or change
secondary energy
electiricity for humans
primary sources
in order to produce it: examples of primary sources are coal, natural gas, and oil.
What did Ben Franklin discover over a 100 yrs ago
descovered electricity, began 100 years along with t. Edison and the light bulb
Electrcity travels in closed loops and must have a complet path before the electrons can move; if ther is a gap in the loop the electrons cannot move. when a light switch is off, the electric circuit is open (has a gap)
Circuits-Part 2
when you flip a light switch to on we cause a gap, in the ciruit to be closed an the electricity flows from the electric with thourgh the light and back into the wire through the light and back into the wire
Batteries Part 1
a battery prdces electrical using 2 different metals in a chemcial solution: due to a chemical reaction, one metal gives uup more electrons than the other metal
Battary Part 2
One end of the battery is attached to one metal, the other end to the other metal: the end that gives up more elctrons is the postive side, while the ohter end is a negative charge
Battary Part 3
if a wire is connected to both ends of the battery, electrons flow thoruht the wired balance the electrical charge
Battary Part 4
some thing like a light bulb is placed along the wire, the electrons flow through the wired to balance the electical charge
Battary Part5
some thing like a light bulb is placed along the wire, the electrons flow from o one end of the battery through the wire again and back to the battery
In electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, or any other source of mechanical energy.

Contents [hide]
1 Historic developments
1.1 Faraday
1.2 Dynamo
1.3 Jedlik's dynamo
1.4 Gramme dynamo
1.5 MHD generator
2 Concepts
3 Excitation
4 Terminology
5 Equivalent circuit
5.1 Maximum power
6 Vehicle-mounted generators
7 Engine-generator
7.1 Hand portable emergency generators
7.2 Mid-size stationary engine-generator
8 Patents
9 See also
10 External links

[edit] Historic developments
Electrostatic generators are used for scientific experiments requiring high voltages. Because of the difficulty of insulating machines producing very high voltages, electrostatic generators are made only with low power ratings and are never used for generation of commercially-significant quantities of electric power. Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, generators used electrostatic principles. The Wimshurst machine used electrostatic induction or "influence". Some electrostatic machines (such as the more modern Van de Graaff generator) uses either of two mechanisms:

Charge transferred from a high-voltage electrode
Charge created by the triboelectric effect using the separation of two insulators (the belt leaving the lower pulley)

[edit] Faraday

Portable generator side view showing gasoline engine.In 1831-1832 Michael Faraday discovered that a potential difference is generated between the ends of an electrical conductor that moves perpendicular to a magnetic field. He also built the first electromagnetic generator called the 'Faraday disc', a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage, and large amounts of current.

[edit] Dynamo
The Dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation into an alternating electric current. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure which generates a strong magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the magnetic field may be provided by a permanent magnet; larger machines have the magnetic field created by electromagnets.

The first dynamo based on Faraday's principles was built in 1832 by Hippolyte Pixii, a French instrument maker. It used a permanent magnet which was rotated by a crank. The spinning magnet was positioned so that its north and south poles passed by a piece of iron wrapped with wire. Pixii found that the spinning magnet produced a pulse of current in the wire each time a pole passed the coil. Furthermore, the north and south poles of the magnet induced currents in opposite directions. By adding a commutator, Pixii was able to convert the alternating current to direct current.

Unlike the Faraday disc, many turns of wire connected in series can be used in the moving windings of a dynamo. This allows the terminal voltage of the machine to be higher than a disc can produce, so that electrical energy can be delivered at a convenient voltage.

Two dynamos acting on each other to balance power differences between two loads. The two separate dynamos can be merged together into a single frame.The relationship between mechanical rotation and electric current in a dynamo is reversible; the principles of the electric motor were discovered when it was found that one dynamo could cause a second interconnected dynamo to rotate if current was fed through it.

The transformative ability of a dynamo to change energy from electrical power to mechanical power and back again could be exploited as a current-compensation and balancing device to even out power distribution on interconnected, unbalanced circuits.

[edit] Jedlik's dynamo
What type of machines are used by generators
Turbines, engines, water wheels, or similar machines can be used to drive devices like gerators, which converty mechanical or chemical energy into electricty
Coal, petrelum m naturat gass
These are burined in large furnaces to heat water to make steam to turn blades of a turbine, hot compustion gases given off by natural gas ae also used for this purpose
nuclear power
process involves produce steam by heat water
through nuc. fusion
ustually the fuel in case is enriced uranium (iran), which is bombarded with neutrons; as a result, they split and release heat and more nuetrons, these nutrions bomboard other uranium atoms which split and so on.
Hydropower-these neutorns bombard other urnaium atoms, which split and so on
A process in which flowing water is used to spin a turbine conneted to a generator
these neutorns bombard other urnaium atoms, which split and so on-GEOTHEMRAL POWER
in some areas on the plant, the heat energy buried beneath the surface of the earth rises so close to the surface and heats under ground water: this stream can be used to SPIN TURBINES
these neutorns bombard other urnaium atoms, which split and so on-SOLAR POWER
uses the radiant evergy of the sun. Solar panels collect and trap the sun's energy to heat water, using the steam to genarate electricity
these neutorns bombard other urnaium atoms, which split and so on-WIND POWER
users wind to spin turbines
A self-heating can is an extension of the common food can. It involves the use of dual chambered cans, where an inner chamber holds the food or drink and the outer chamber houses chemicals that undergo an exothermic reaction when combined. When someone wants to eat the food, they pull a ring on the can that breaks the barrier separating the chemicals in the outer chamber. After the heat has been absorbed by the food, the eater can then enjoy a hot meal or drink. While it offers benefits to campers and people eating away from a stove or microwave, the concept is not yet widespread because of the added expenses and problems with heating the food evenly.

The source of the heat for the self heated can is an exothermic reaction that the user initiates by pressing on the bottom of the can. The can is manufactured as three containers. A container for the beverage is mounted on top of a container of calcium oxide (quicklime) that is separated from a container of water by a thin breakable membrane. When the user pushes on the bottom of the can, a rod connected there pierces the membrane, mixing the water and calcium oxide. The resulting chemical reaction releases heat (the heat of hydration of calcium oxide) and thus warms the beverage above it. [5]
an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat. It is the opposite of an endothermic reaction. Expressed in a chemical equation, an exothermic reaction, the total energy absorbed in bond breaking is less than the total energy released in bond making. In other words, the energy needed for the reaction to occur is less than the total energy provided. As a result of this, the extra energy is released, usually in the form of heat.

When using a calorimeter, the change in heat of the calorimeter is equal to the opposite of the change in heat of the system. This means that when the medium in which the reaction is taking place gains heat, the reaction is exothermic.
Chemicals can store energy and release it in the form of heat. A chemical reaction that releases heat is called

an exothermic reaction. But chemical reactions can also absorb heat from the environment and get cold. These reactions are called endothermic reactions. When chemicals are dissolved in water, sometimes heat is released, and sometimes heat is absorbed.

Heat is given off as a result of a chemical reaction. Hot/cold packs are used by athletes to minimize swelling of injuries such as muscle and joint sprains. They are constructed of a large pouch containing a dry chemical plus an inner pouch of water. The hot/cold pack is activated by breaking the seal on the pouch of water and shaking the pack vigorously. This action mixes the water with the chemical starting the exothermic, one the heating pad or endothermic reaction, causing the pack to become cold. This could relate to the test regaurding the bottle with the fluid in it going into the lake
In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. Its etymology stems from the Greek prefix endo-, meaning “inside” and the Greek suffix –thermic, meaning “to heat”. The opposite of an endothermic process is an exothermic process, one that releases energy in the form of heat. The term “endothermic” was coined by Marcellin Berthelot.

The concept is frequently applied in physical sciences to e.g. chemical reactions, where chemical bond energy is converted to thermal energy (heat).Some examples of endothermic processes are:[2]

Melting of ice
Depressurizing a pressure can
Chemical endothermic reactions need heat to be performed. In a thermochemical reaction that is endothermic, the heat is placed on the reactants side (heat is necessary for and absorbed during the reaction).
45) talking points-Part 1
the teacher must be able to convey to students that neither mater nor energy can be created or destroyed
45) talking points-Part 2
changes and transformations occur in both matter and energy, and the teacher should be able to recognize these transformations and their use
45) talking points-Part 3
the teacher must demonstrate a knowledge of electricity and how it is generated for human use
45) talking points-Part 4
finally the teacher must be aware of applications of exothermic and endothemic reactions