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20 Cards in this Set

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Biologic agents that can be weaponized categorized as A, B or C. What are the classifications based on ??
1. Ease of dissemination
2. Potential for major public health impact
3. potential for panic/disruption
4. requirements for preparedness
Category A bioterror agents
Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Smallpox, C.botulinum toxin, F.tularensis, Hemorrhagic fever viruses
Bacillus anthracis is spore forming bacteria naturally found in herbivores. Its routes of human infection are ??
Cutaneous; Pulmonary, GI
Most common anthrax manifestation with formation of eschar, surrounding edema and lymphadenopathy.
Cutaneous anthrax
Most lethal form of anthrax. Rapidly develops into mediastinal lymphadenitis and hemorrhaging, pleural effusions and septic shock
Pulmonary/inhalation anthrax.

There is no person-to person transmission in anthrax.
Anthrax toxins (3) and their functions
Protective Ag - fcilitates internalization of EF and LF into cells

Edema factor - increases cAMP

Lethal factor - lysis of macrophages by cleaving MAPKK
Peniciilin, doxycyclin and what other antibiotic are useful int reating Anthrax if given early ??
Ciprofloxacin. Note that vaccinations are given to livestock and military.
The Plague is caused by ??

What are its 3 forms ??
Yersinia pestis

Bubonic; Septicemic; Pneumonic. Pneumonic is most contagious/deadly
Clinical Manifestastions of Plague
Organism injected into skin, travels to regional nodes. multiply in nodes - painful, fever, necrotic -> bubonic plague.

Secondary pneumonia can develop, sepsis, death -> pneumonic plague.
Treatment/Prevention of Plague
Streptomycin, tetracyclin, doxycyclin within first 2 days.

Plague vaccine found to be ineffective.
Common spore forming bacteria found in soil. Produces toxin which blocks neuromuscular transmission. Bilateral symmetric flaccid paralysis without fever. Caused by ??
Clostridium botulinum toxin
Treatment of Botox poisoning ??
Mainly supportive, although antidotes to toxin are available.

Vaccines available to lab workers.
Smallpox virus epidemiology ??
highly infectious with person to person spread. Almost all got the disease before eradicyaed by vaccine. Spread by respiratory droplets, contact with fomites. Shedding occurs with onset of rash.
Clinical manifestations of high fver, malaise, prostration with evolving rash from maculopapular to pustules to crusts. Pustules are deeply embedded in dermis and leave pitted scar match waht organism ??
Small pox virus
Diagnosis and Treatment of Smallpox ??
Dx: clinical appearance of lesions: maculopapular to pustule to crusty.

Treat: symptomatic (no anti-virals licensed). Vaccine has high rate of side-effects
Small pox vaccine strain is called ??
Vaccinia - a live, attenuated virus. Vaccinia is touched to vaccine site and covered with bandage.
Francisella tularensis
G- coccobacillus which naturally infects rodents. Transmitted by ticks/deer flies. Higly infectious but not as deadly as anthrax.
Natural transmission/epidemiology of tularemia
Acquired by 1) ticks bites when cleaning hunted animals.
cutaneous ulcer with swollen node 2) inhalation 3) ingestion with raw meat.
Treatment of tularensis
streptomycin, doxycyclin. 60% mortality if untreated. Only a few organisms are required to cause the disease.
Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Flavivirus, Rift valley fever, Kyasanur Forest fever, bunyaviruses are all exmaples of ??

Their treatments are ??
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers - fever, chills, headache, massive hemmorrhaging, death.

No licensed treatment/anti-virals and no vaccines.