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30 Cards in this Set

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Define zoonotic infections
infections of nonhuman hosts that are transmitted to humans. e.g. bioterrorism agents; emerging infections
Zoonotic infections are spread by 4 methods. They are:
Bites; Inhalation; Ingestion; Fecal/oral
Etiology of Lyme Disease is ?? Name another organism with the same shape
Borrelia burgdorferi
(G-, spirochete). Treponema Pallidum (Syphillis) is also spiral shaped.
Lyme disease reservoir
Lyme disease vector
Res: mice
Vec: ticks (infection through bite)
4 stages in natural history (progression) of Lyme disease
Localized early disease -> Early disseminated -> Disseminated -> Chronic
Localized early Lyme disease shows erythema migrans - describe it.
Erythema migrans - annular, sharply demarcated, non-tender, may have bull's-eye appearance.
Early dissemintaed Lyme disease includes:

Is treated with
secondary lesions on skin

fever and malaise, arthralgia & myalgia

Acute Arthritis appears.

Treated with:
Antibiotics doxy and amoxi
Disseminated Lyme Disease includes
Carditis, neurologic manifestations.

Chronic Lyme Disease shows:
Neorologic symptoms

Chronic Arthritis - defined as >1 yr of arthritis. Does not respond to antibiotics
Diagnosis for Lyme disease requires:
Differential - Erythema Migrans

Serology - ELISA + Western blot.

PCR can be used in difficult patients as culture is not easy to create.
Define arboviruses. What are the reserviors?? What are the hosts??
viruses transmitted by arthropods e.g. ticks, mosquitos.

Reservoirs: birds

Host: horses and humans are dead-end hosts
Arboviruses found in US
Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis viruses;
West Nile;
St. Louis Encephalitis virus;
LaCrosse virus;
Colorado Tick Fever
The US is at risk for Dengue fever virus and ??
Yellow fever.
A virus similiar to St Louis Encephalitis Virus was found in dead birds. It was found to be ??
West Nile Virus. First entered US in 1999.
WNV has birds as reservoir, and what as vector ??
Dengue Fever is also called Break-bone fever. It has 4 serotypes. Reinfection with different serotype results in ??
severe immune mediated hemorrhagic disease and shock
Dengue vector and reservoir ??
Vector: mosquitos

Reservoir: humans

Same for Yellow fever, too.
Characterized by high fever, chills and then liver damage. Cases occurred while building Panama canal - name the zoonotic infection.
Yellow fever.
Controlling mosquito borne viruses includes what measures ??
1. Surveiallnce of horses, mosquitos, birds
2. Environmental clean-up.
3. insecticides
4. avoid mosquito bites
Wwat zoonotic infection matches the description:

bi-phasic episodes of fever, chills, arthrlagia, headalgia; prolonged recovery time; disease localized to W US 4000ft and higher
Colorado Tick fever, which is not a neurologic disease by the way.
Colorado Tick Fever charactistics:
Vector: tick D. andersoni

Res: rodents

virus replicates in bone marrow stem cells.
Rabies - list major reservoirs.
Raccoons, skunks, bats.
Stages in Rabies virus infection:
animal bite -> prolonged replication at site -> ascend sensory nerve -> replicate in ganglia -> ascend to brain -> replication/transmission in saliva.
Describe two forms of rabies infection
aggression, confusion, salivation, hydrophobia
weak, inability to swallow, salivation, choking.
Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis
give Immunoglobins and active vaccine. Human rabies Ig milked from vet students - no joke.
Regarding rabies, Why can one wait for a few days after animal bite before receiving treatment?
rabies virus replicates at bite site slowly. Wait and observe wound and animal when vaccination status of animal unkown (unless the animal is a skunk, bat or raccoon)
Pasteurella sp; S.aureus; and Alpha + Beta Strep sp are associated with ??
Bacteroides, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium
Dog Bites.
Anaerobes associated with dog bites.
Pasteurella canis and multocida.

Found where?? Cause what?? Treated how??
G- coccobacilli. Normal dog/cat flora.

Localized cellulitis/lymphadenitis, abcess, tenosynovitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis (latter two with cats)

Susceptible to several antibiotics.
Management of dog/cat bites
culture wound; irrigation; debridement; antibiotics should cover Pasteurella, Strep, Staph, anaerobes.

Amoxicillin w/clavulanate often used.
Regional, unilateral lymphadenitis. Usually benign and self limited illness. Sometimes whole arm could swell up. Common in children.

Name it ???
Cat Scratch Fever courtesy of Bartonella henselae.