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52 Cards in this Set

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Substance that creates an immune response by forming an antibody or reacting with an antibody
Antigens
most abundant; activates compliment; neutralizes toxins; enhances phagocytosis; provides immunity against viral and bacterial infections
IgG
activates compliment; possibly mediates autoimmune reactions
IgM
inhibits bacteria and viruses from adhering to skin and mucous membranes
IgA
degranulation of basophils during inflammatory response; help clear parasites and prevent respiratory tract infections; mediates many hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions
IgE
modifies IgM activity
IgD
perform phagocytosis; repair injured tissue
Macrophages
WBC, possess weak phagocytic activity; release vasoactive substances
Eosinophiles
WBC, first line of defense, perform phagocytosis
Neutrophils
transmit impulses
Dendritic cells
larger than T-cells; life span short; have b-antigen, immunoglobulins, and HLA antigens on surface; can transform into plasma cells
B lymphocytes
imprinted in thymus and provide cell mediated immunity; long life span; have surface antigens
T-lymphocytes
recognizes self vs. non self; stimulate and organize response of immune system
Helper T Cells
bind to HLA antigen complex cell and kill it
T cytotoxic cells
search and destroy cells throughout body
Natural killer cells
interaction between an antigen (immunogen) and an antibody (immunoglobulin)
Immune Response
aquired through immunization or actually having disease. (standard regimen of immunizations)
Active immunity
temporary protection that is transmitted or borrowed
Passive immunity
Immunity dependent on presence of circulating antibodies
Humoral immunity
These are involved with which immunity?

- B-lymphocytes
- Antibodies - immunoglobulins
- Two types of response
Humoral immunity
Immunity dependent on lymphocytes that react directly with the antigen to cause its destruction
Cell-mediated immunity
These are involved with which immunity?

- T-lymphocytes
- Mature in thymus
- Regulatory t-cells t-helper cells; t-suppressory cells
- Effector t-cells - release lymphokines; killer t-cells
Cell-mediated immunity
immunological response can distinguish between self and nonself but not between agents and pathogens
Nonspecific immunity
amplifies the antigen-antibody reaction; activation of the system can radically alter the cell membrane and lead to rapid cell lysis
Complement system
Four steps of phagocytosis
1. Chemotaxis
2. Opsonization
3. Engulfment
4. Intracellular killing
regulatory proteins produced with inflammatory response
Cytokines (many types)
Manifestations of ________

- Impaired humoral (antibody) immunity (IgG)
- Normal at birth due to presence of maternal immunoglobulins
- X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia (bruton's hypogammaglobulinemia). Genetic disease and occurs in males only
- Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy
- Severe infections is the major complication of these deficiencies
Primary [(hereditary or congenital) and secondary (acquired after birth)] Immunodeficiendy Disease
Type of Humoral (B-cell) immunodeficiency:

Congenital defect with failure of thymus gland development; congenital heart disease is usually present; may see decrease calcium and infection
Digeorge's syndrome
Manifestations of what immunodeficiency disease?

- T cell and B cell function is disrupted are absent and they cannot launch an immune response.
- Several types of disorders
- Some lack stem cells
T and B Cellular Deficiencies
A type of T & B cell deficiency accompanied by thrombocytopenia
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
Allergic/Hypersensitivity Disorders:

Atopic - allergic rhinitis, food allergies, latex allergy
Non atopic - anaphylaxis, urticaria, hives
Type I, IgE mediated
Allergic/ Hypersensitivity Disorders:

hemolytic anemias
Type II Antibody mediated (Cytotoxic)
Allergic/ Hypersensitivity Disorders:

- Arthrus reaction
- Serum sickness
- vasculitis with SLE
- acute glomerulonephritis
Type III Immune Complex Allergic Disorders
Allergic/Hypersensitivity Disorders

- allergic contact dermatitis
- hypersensitivity pneumoninitis
- tuberculin skin test
- poison ivy
Type IV Cell Medicated Hypersensitivity (Delayed)
Latex Allergy:

- most common, due to sweating or rubbing under gloves
Irritant Contact Dermatitis
Latex Allergy:

- Reaction to chemicals added to latex
Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Body's immune system reacts to proteins found in latex.
Latex Allergy
People at risk for latex allergy
- spina bifida
- healthcare workers
- freq. surgeries
- rubber industry workers
- allergies to avocados
Manifestations of _______ ?

- Develops after repeated exposure in most cases
- Nasal congestion, hives, difficulty breathing
- Severe anaphylaxis
Latex Allergy
Breakdown in the system which ensures that the immune system will be active only against foreign materials. Body produces antibodies against its own tissue which is then destroyed
Autoimmune Disease
- Chronic autoimmune disorder w/ multiple system involvement
- Occurs in 20-40 yr old age group
- 85% of women, increase in blacks
- Attacks "self" as if it were foreign
Systemic lupus erythematosus
S&S of ________ ?

- "butterfly rash"
- extreme sensitivity to light
- Polyarthritis
- Renal involvement
Systemic lupus erythematosus
- inflammation of striated muscle
- manifests w/ systemic proximal muscle weakness, pain & tenderness
Polymyositis
- inflammation of the connective tissue with excessive collagen deposits
- severe progressive disease of the skin and then other organs
Scleroderma
- inflammation of lacrimal & parotid glands
- manifests w/ dry eyes and dry mouth
Sjorgen's Syndrome
- inflammation of joints
Rheumatoid arthritis
Retrovirus characterized by presence of reverse transcriptase. Infects CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages
HIV
Transmission of AIDS (3 types)
1. sexual contact
2. blood exchange
3. perinatally (in utero, during labor and delivery, through breast milk)
Patho of ________ ?

- virus deposited on mucosal surface
- acute infection (mono like symptoms)
- viral dissemination
AIDS
Stages of AIDS (6)
a. Primary infection
b. Seroconversion
c. Clinically latent period
d. Early symptomatic infection (ARC or B symptoms)
e. AIDS (presence of AIDS indicator conditions)
f. Advanced AIDS (CD4 < 50)
Course of AIDS
- Immunological dysregulation
- opportunistic infections & cancers
- Risk of infections is correlated with number of CD4 & lymphocytes
Clinical manifestations of _______ ?

(all Opportunistic infections)
1. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
3. Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI)
4. Cytomegolivirus (CMV) retinopathy
5. Toxoplasmosis gondii
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis
7. Esophageal candidiasis
8. Wasting Syndrome
9. Metabolic Disorders
10. AIDS dementia
11. Peripheral neuropathy
12. Kaposi's sarcoma
trix are for kids... seriously