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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
undifferentiated cells that differentiate into osteoblasts during growth and healing
Osteogenic
bone building cells
Osteoblasts
mature bone cells active in maintaining the bony matrix
Osteocytes
cells that function in the resorption of bone
Osteoclasts
membrane that covers bones (except articular ends)
Periosteum
membrane lining spaces of spongy bone, marrow cavities
Endosteum
irregularly shaped bones located in ankles
Short Bones
layer of spongy bone between layers of compact bone
Flat Bones
shaft of the long bone - compact bone
Diaphysis
ends of long bones - covered with articular cartilage
Epiphysis
part of bone shaft that funnels out - bony trabeculae
Metaphysis
Hormonal action of bone & calcium:
Intestinal absorption of calcium
Parathyroid increases
Calcitonin unaffected
Vitamin D increases
Hormonal action of bone & calcium:
Renal Excretion of calcium
Parathyroid increases
Calcitonin unaffected
Vitamin D increases
Hormonal action of bone & calcium:
Serum calcium
Parathyroid increases
Calcitonin decreases
Vitamin D unaffected
Hormonal action of bone & calcium:
Bone resorption
Parathyroid increases
Calcitonin decreases
Vitamin D increases
Hormonal action of bone & calcium:
Bone formation
Parathyroid increases
Calcitonin uncertain
Vitamin D increases
Types of Fractures
1. Complete or incomplete
2. Open(compound) or closed(simple)
3. Comminuted (2 or more fragments)
Types of fracture lines
1. linear
2. oblique
3. spiral & transverse
4 steps of bone healing
1. hematoma
2. callus
3. ossification
4. remodeling
stretching injury to muscle or tendons
Strain
ligament involvement, abnormal or excessive movement of a joint
Sprain
Degenerative joint disease leading cause of disability & pain in the elderly.
Problem with homeostatic mechanisms that maintain articular cartilage
Osteoarthritis
Causes of ________ ?

- Idiopathic
- Trauma
- Repeated stress
- Congenital deformity
- Hemophilia (or other conditions with chronic joint swelling)
- Common in elderly
- Obesity
Osteoarthritis
Manifestations of ________ ?

- pain(hips, knees and lumbar)
Osteoarthritis
Systematic inflammatory disease that affects 0.3 - 1.5% of the population(women 2-3x more than men)
aberrant immune response that leads to synovial inflammation and destruction of the joint architecture
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Causes of ________ ?

- Autoimmune disease; Develops after an immune response Bacterium, mycoplasm or virus
- Original response is IgG mediated - may destroy microorganism; Other antibodies produced (IgM or IgG); Self-directed antibodies called rheumatoid factors (RF)
- Genetic predisposition; Women affected more
- Various cytokines contribute
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Manifestation of ________ ?

- symmetric, any diarthroidal joint, and polyarticular, joint pain and swelling, "spindle-shaped" appearance (esp. fingers)
- Extracellular symptoms: fatigue, weakness, anorexia, weight loss, low-grade fever, rheumatiod nodules
labs: elevated ESR, anemia
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Complications of ________ ?

- Extrasynovial rheumatoid nodules develop on: Cardiac valves; Lungs; Eyes; Spleen
- Vasculitis -> thrombosis & infarction
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Causes of ________ ?

- inflammatory response to uric acid which results if increased levels of uric acid in body & body fluids, including synovial fluids
Gout
Syndrome caused by inflammatory response to uric acid which results if increased levels of uric acid in body &* body fluids, including synovial fluids
Gout
Manifestations of ________ ?

- Monoarticular and usually affects the first metatarsophalangeal joint, begins at night with pain in affected joint.
Gout
Causes of ________ ?

- Congenital structural deformity
- Neuromuscular disease
- Idiopathic
- Poor posture causing deformity and pain
- May compromise pulmonary function
Scoliosis
Complications of ________ ?

- back pain
- respiratory, cardiac, and GI complications
Scoliosis
Density or mass of bone is reduced; spongy & compact bone are lost; involves major portions of axial skeleton
Osteoporosis
Causes of ________ ?

- Inadequate dietary calcium & magnesium intake
- Lack of exercise
- Lack of vitamin D
- Decreased levels of estrogen
- Family history
- Excessive phosphorus (sodas & junkfood)
Osteoporosis
Patho of _______

Imbalance between bone resorption and formation such that bone resorption exceeds formation
Osteoporosis
Manifestations of ________ ?

- Silent disorder
- first symptom usually a fracture
- height loss with kyphosis (Dowager's hump)
Osteoporosis
inadequate & delayed mineralization of osteoid in mature compact and spongy bone
Osteomalacia
Causes of ________ ?

- Deficiency of vitamin D & Ca
- Rare in USA
- Disorders of small bowel
- hepatobiliary system & pancreas; Anticonvulsant drug therapy; Renal osteodystrophy; phosphate deficiency due to renal loss or decreased intestinal absorption
Osteomalacia
Manifestations of ________ ?

- Bone pain
- tenderness
- fractures
Osteomalacia
Bone infection caused by bacteria (Staph aureus*, B streptococci*, fungi, parasites & viruses)
Osteomyelitis
Patho of _______

Different in children & adults
Children - long bones / growth plate
Adults - vertebrae, sacroiliac joints
Osteomyelitis
Manifestations of ________ ?

- symptoms of bacteremia
- pain, swelling, redness
Osteomyelitis
Three major symptoms:
pain, presence of a mass, impairment of function.
(can be present anywhere)
Bone cancer
Three types of RA in children
1. Systemic onset (10%)
2. Pauciarticular arthritis (50%)
3. Polyarticular onset disease (40%)
Manifestations of ________ ?

- daily intermittent high fever, usually accompanied by a rash
- generalized lymphadenopathy
- hepatosplenomegaly
- leukocytosis & anemia
- Symptoms usually subside in 6 to 12 months (can also make appearance in adulthood)
Systemic onset JRA
Affects no more that 4 joints. Affects girls younger than 6 and boys with late-onset arthritis
Pauciarticular JRA
Affects 5 or more joints during the first 6 months. Systemic feature adds low-grade fever, weight loss, malaise, anemia, stunted growth, slight organomegaly (hepatsplenomegaly) and adenopathy
Polyarticular JRA
devascularized bone fragments
sequestra
long bone / growth plate bone infection. adjacent joint involved; periosteal new bone formation and reactive bone formation in the marrow tend to wall in the infection
Child Osteomyelitis
Vertebral / sacroiliac joint infection. first involves subchondral bone, then spreads to the joint space. In vertebrae sequential destruction of end plate, adjoining disk, and contiguous vertebral body.
Adult Osteomyelitis