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39 Cards in this Set

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Taste buds
Have elongated taste cells that have sensory microvilli at the tip.
Gustatory cortex
Area in brain for taste.
Olfactory cells
Modified neurons, located within olfactory epithelium in nasal cavity. Each cell has receptor proteins for specific odor molecules.
Olfactory bulb
Extension of the brain that receives impulses from olfactory cells.
Cornea
Made of collagen fibers, outer membrane that protects the eye.
Aqueous humor
Watery fluid fills anterior compartment.
Anterior of eye
Everything in front of lens.
Choroid
thin middle coat around eye, absorbs stray light and becomes the iris in the anterior part of the eye.

Ciliary muscles arise from ciliary body of choroid and attach to the lens, helps change shape of eyes.
Iris
Regulates amount of light entering eye by expanding or decreasing size of pupil.
Pupil
opening in eye
Retina
Contains photoreceptors, impulses exit eye thru optic nerve.
Rod cells
Powerful, acute photoreceptors for black and white vision
Cone Cells
Photoreceptors for color vision. Packed in the fovea centralis
Vitrous humor
Clear, gelatinous fluid that holds retina in place and supports lens.
Nearsightedness
Lens focuses image in front of the retina, remedied by concave lens.
Farsightedness
Lens focuses image beyond the retina. Remedied with convex lens.
Astigmatism
Cornea has irregular surface, causing image to be unevenly focused on retina. Remedied with uneven lens.
Pinna
Part of outer ear, supported with cartilage
Auditory Ear Canal
Ceruminous glands along upper part of canal secrete cerumen.
Cerumen
Ear wax
Tympanum
Eardrum
Ossicles
Bones of the middle ear, tiniest bones of the body, transfer vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window of the inner ear.

Malleus (hammer)
Incus (anvil)
Stapes (stirrup)
Auditory (Eustachian) tube
Extends from middle ear to nasopharynx, allowing air pressure in the middle ear to be equalized.
Cochlea
Pressure from stapes pressing on oval window in transferred here.
Spiral organ (organ of corti)
Inside of the cochlea
Tectoral Membrane
Pressure waves in fluid of cochlea cause this to slide across sensitive stereocilia.
Stereocilia
Transfer impulses to the cochlear nerve. Can be destroyed by one minute of sound over 100 decibels.
Rotational Equilibrium
Rotating the head causes fluid to press against the cupula, bending the stereocillia and sending an impulse to the brain.
Cupula
Jelly-like tissue located in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Hair cells with stereocilia are embedded in it.
Gravitational equilibrium
Nodding the head causes the heavy otoliths in otolithic membrane to sag, bending the stereocilia.
Otolithic membrane
Hair cells with stereocilia are embedded in it, contains heavy otoliths.
otoliths
bone cells
Meningitis
Microorganisms infect meninges, inflammation of meninges. Leading cause of mental retardation in the US. Children under 4 most susceptible.
Leprosy
Caused by mycobacterium. Sensory neurons gradually destroyed, skin becomes desensitized. Accidental self-inflicted damage.
Polio
Caused by polio virus from fecal contaminated soil and water. Attacks motor neurons so that impulses fail to reach the target tissues. Paralysis of skeletal muscle.
Rabies
Rabies virus can cause encephalitis. Infection may constrict the throat, making swallowing of mucus difficult, causing foaming at the mouth. From animal bites or licks of open sores.
Encephalitis
Swelling of brain tissues. Brain, encased in bone, has nowhere to go.
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE)
Caused by prions, deform normal proteins in the nervous system. Dense plaques create sponge-like holes in brain.

E.G., Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad cow disease)
Prions
Infectious protein particles, smaller than viruses. Resistant to high temperatures and household disinfectants.