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83 Cards in this Set

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What are the steps of Molecular diagnosis of inherited diseases ?
1. Isolation of genomic DNA
2. Determination of concentration and purity of the DNA
3. Storage of DNA
4. Mutation detection methods
What are the two methods of isolation of genomic DNA ?
How is purity of DNa determined ?
How long can DNA be stored for ?
Methods of isolation - 1. Traditional method with removal of proteins and precipitation. 2.Spin column purification (binding to silica and salt elution).
Purity of DNA is determined by the absorption ratio of DNA to that of proteins (Abs260/abs280 --> should be 1.7 to 1.9).
DNA can be stored for months at +4, years at -20C, or ten years at -70C
What are two DNA mutation detection methods ?
Give 3 types of PCR techniques.
DNA mutation detection - southern blot (with restriction enzymes) and PCR.
PCR --> Standard PCR, Multiplex PCR, Quantitative RT PCR
Give 4 components of PCR, give 5 ways to analyze PCR products
PCR : Template DNA, Primers, Taq polymerase, dNTPs, buffer.
Analysis of PCR products :
1. Electrophoresis
2. Restriction digestion
3. Hybridization probes (heat stability)
4. Hybridization with allele specific nucleotides
5. MLPA
6. DNA sequencing
Give two methods to detect Hb levels
1. Hemoglobin cyanide (cyanmethemoglobin) method
2. Sodium lauryl sulphate method
What are the steps of Hemiglobin-cyanide method to determine Hb ?
K3FeCN(6) transforms hemoglobin to hemiglobin. Then CN- forms hemoglobin-cyanide with the Hi. Color product is measured at 540nm
What is the sample for Hb determination and where should you keep the reagent ? Also, what is the reference interval ?
The sample is whole blood anticoagulatd with EDTA. K3FeCN(6) reagent should be kept in dark and well-capped. REference interval for this method is 140-180g/L or 120-160g/L(female)
What are the two methods to determine Hct ?
What is the sample ?
What is the reference interval ?
Two ways - Centrifugation, calculation. Sample - whole blood anticoagulated with EDTA or heparin. Reference - male - 0.38-0.52, female 0.37-0.46
How is true Hct achieved with the centrifugation method ?
Multiply result by 0.97 as sedminted RBCs enclose 3% trapped plasma
What is the procedure of Hct determination using centrifugation method ?
How do you calculate Hct ?
1. Mix whole blood
2. Fill glass capillaries, close with wax
3. place into rotor with wax outwards
4. 5minx12,000g
5. Read result on capillary and multiply by 0.97
Hct = (RBCxMCV)/1000
1.Procedure for blood drawing
2.procedure for microcapillary blood collection
1. positioniong
2. Apply torniquet
3. locate vein
4. clean site with isopropyl alcohol
5.venipuncture
6. insert tubes
7. release torniquet before last tube is filled
8. remove needle
9. apply gauze
10. needle disposal and specimen labeling

Microcapillary :
1. site: usually inger of heel
2. clean with isopropyl alcohol
3. puncture finger off the center and perpendicular to fingerprint lines
4. wipe away 1st drop and then collect blood
1. What is the vacutainer used for chemical tests (anticogulant,stopper color)
2. What is the vacutainer used for hematology (anticogulant,stopper color)
3. What is the vacutainer used for hemostasis tests (anticogulant,stopper color)
1. Chemical tests - no anticogulant, RED
2. Hematology - EDTA, LAVENDER
3. Hemostasis - Sodium citrate, BLUE
4. What is the vacutainer used for flow cytometry and chromsome analysis tests (anticogulant,stopper color)
5. What is the vacutainer used for glucose determination(anticogulant,stopper color)
6. What is the vacutainer used for blood culture (anticogulant,stopper color)
4.Sodium/lithium-heparin (inactivates thrombin), GREEN
5. Sodium-fluride, inhibits glyolysis, GRAY
6. ACD(acid-citrate-dextrose), maintains RBC viability, YELLOW
Two types of smears
1. from non-anticogulated blood --> free of artefacts due to storage and the effects of the anticogulant but show plt aggregation
2. From EDTA-anticogulated blood, must be spread within an hour after venipuncture and do not show plt aggregation. Plt morphology can be assessed
Steps in preparing a blood smear
1. Spreading
2. Fixation in absolut methanol for 5min
3. Stain with Pappenheim panoptic stain based on a May-grunwald-giemsa staining. Nucleic acids and basophilic granules are blue, hemoglobin and eosinophilic granules are red
Give two names of the counting chamber ? What is the sample used for cell counting ?
Burker counting chamber of hemocytometer. Sample - capillary blood or venous EDTA anticogulated blood
What is the process of cell counting ?
1. Prepare the sample (20x dilution with Turks solution, mix, discard first drops and fill cell)
2. Set microscope to x100
3. count 4 1mmSquare area (equal to 0.4microliter)
4. Then, if diulted 20x --> Resultx2.5x20 divided by 1000 gives you white blood cells in G/L
What is the solution used for the cell counting in the practice ? Also, how do you count platelets ?
Leuthromb solution (25microliter blood+475leuthromb). Plt - count 10 rectangles --> multiply by 2 for G/L
What are the abnormal RBC forms ?
1.Normal - 7-8micrometer, round, central pallor
2.Hypochromatic - pale
3. Microcytic
4. Macrocytic
5. Ovalocyte - egg shaped
6. spherocyte - round with little or no central pallor
7. stomatocyte
8. Target cell, codocyte - hemoglobin in center and periphery
9. Teardrop
10. Schistocyte - small cell with at least one irregular edge
11. Sickle cell - Drepanocyte
12. Echinocyte - regular projections
13. Achantocyte - irregular spiny projections
What are the inclusions that can be seen in RBC.
What are the two methods to determine reiculocyte count ?
1. Basophilic stipling - dneatured RNA
2. Howell-joly bodies - nuclear remnants
3. Malaria parasites
Reticulocyte count :
1. Brilliant-cresyl blue method
2. Hematology analyzers
What are the principles of reticulocyte counting using BCB method, and what is the sample used.
Residual RNA can be visualized as fine granulated net by BCB labeling. A cell is a reticulyte if it shows at lesat 2 granules. As reticulocyte count is usually <2%, at least 1000 RBCs need to be counted.
Sample is EDTA-anticoagulated blood
What is the procedure of reticulocyte counting by BCB ? What is the principle of counting reticulocytes using hematology analyzers ?
1:1 ratio of BCB to blood, mix, wait 60min. Draw smear, use immersion oil to count 1000 RBC. 2 or more granles is a reticulocyte. Principle of hematology analyzers - mature RBCs do not contain nucleic acids while reticulocye have ribosomes and RNA - therefore using fluorescence dye bound to residual RNA immaturaity can be visualized.
What is the test sample used in reticulocyte count by hematology analyzer, what is the duration of the measurement and how many cells are counteed ? Also, what is the clinical relevance ?
Sample - EDTA anti-coagulated blood
Duration - 10 sec
Cells - 40,000
Clinical - EPO treatment or iron-deficient anemia therapy
What is the coeffient of variation for hematology analyzers comparing to manual cell counting ?
Also, what are the 2 methods employed by hematology analyzers ?
Manual - 12-20%, Analyzers - <3%
1. Detection of electrical impedence --> Coulter
2. Based on scatter properties
What is the general rule in case of maturation of lympoid/myeloid cells ?
As cels mature --> cell size and nucleus/plasma ratio decrease. Nucleoli disappear, chromatin condenses and granules and/or shape of mature nucleus are attained
How do you differentiate the differnt cells of the myeloid (neutrophilic) lineage ?
Myeloblast --> >10micrometer, basophilic, no granulation, loose chromatin, many nucleoli, halo around nucleus
Promyelocyte - Largest in sequence, many azurophilic granules, decreased nucleus/plasma ratio
Myelocyte - less basophilic cytoplasm with less granules and no nucleoli
Metamyelocyte - specific granules appear and nucleus is bean shaped
Band - S shaped nucleus, grayish-blue granulation
Neutrophil - several lobes of nucleus connected, bluish granulation
How do you differentiate the cells of the lymphoid line ?
Lymphoblast - large nucleus/plasma ratio, purple plasma with nucleoli - similar to myeloblast
Small lymphocyte - small, 10-12micro, basophilic cytoplasm, condensed purple nucleus
LArge lymphocyte - loose chromatin, less basophilic cytoplasm
1.MPO is used to diff. between ?
2. Sudan black detects ?
3. Non-specific esterase is used for ?
4. PAS is good for ?
1. MPO-->myeloid cells from promyelocytic phase. Grayish-black, diff between AML and ALL
2. Sudan black-->detects phospholipids in myeloid cells
3. NSE - Monocytes and promyelocytes. Sodium-flurid inhibits the reaction only in monocytes
4. PAS - normal granulocytes and pathological lymphoid and erythroid cells are stronlgy positive
1. Lysosime is good for ?
2. Prussian blue?
3. GAPA ?
4. Acid phosphatase ?
1. Lysosime --> monoblasts and immature monocytes
2. Prussian blue --> positive in ring sideroblasts in MDS
3. GAPA - Low in CGL, however in other myeloproliferative disorders and leukemoid reactions it is positive
4. Acid phosphatase - Lymphoblasts of T origin, myeloma cells, and HCL as part of TRAP. Positive is red.
1. Which AML shows NSE ?
2. Which AML shows MPO ?
3. Which AML shows sudan black ?
4. Which AML shows lyosyme ?
1. NSE --> AML M3-4-5
2. MPO --> strongest in M3, but in theory all AMLs
3. Sudan black - AML M1-M5
4. Lysosyme - AML M5 (maybe M4)
1. What is the precentage of CD34 in the BM of healthy people ?
2. What are 4 possibilites for using immunophenotyping and flow cytometry in leukemia diagnosis
1. <5%
2. 1-Analysis of subgroups of leukemias
2. Precentages of lymphocytes,granulocytes, monocytes
3. CD4/CD8 ratio
4. CD34+ stem cells precentage in BM
In the bedside test for ABO, how long do you wait ?
How long in the lab method ?
How much do you tilt the sample ?
Bedside - wait 30 sec
Lab - wait 10min
Tilt 30degrees
What are the possible sources of error in the lab ABO test (left, right, FP, FN)
Right side - patients' serum :
1. FP : Unclean instruments, bacterial contamination
2. FN : Did not follow protocol

Left side - Patient's RBCs :
1. FP : same
2. FN : Same
3. Weak or missing agglutination - bad control sera
What is the process for RhD determination by Albumin reagent ?
1. Temperature should be 37-42C
2. After mixing, put in wet chamber at 37C for 20min
3. Read results in 2-3min
What is the process for RhD determination by Papain ?
1. Use 1% papain solution
2. use 50% suspension of RBC in its own serum
3. Place in wet chamber for 15 min
What are the sample used for PT time, what is the sample preparation process, what are the 2 types of coagulometers used ?
1. Sample : tube containing 0.105M sodium citrate in a 9:1 ratio (!). Test within 2 hours.
2. Sample preperation - to obtain plt poor plasma, centrifuge samples at 1500g for 15min at room temp. Use only upper 3/4 of solution (plt poor).
3. Two types of coagulometers - Magnetic sensor coagulometer, turbidimetric, nephelometric coagulometers
What is the reagent for the PT time determination ? what is the control value, what is a prolonged time ? how do you interpert the results ?
Reagent - Thromboplastin reagent (containing Ca2+ and tissue thromboplastin (TF)). Control value is the mean of PT of healty donors, and is 8-12sec in our lab. Prolonged is >4sec longer. Report results as PT if healty patient or as INR if on oral anticoagulant (comuarin, warfarin)
What is the sample for APTT ? What is the sample preparation process ? What does the reagent contain ? what does the starter pipette add ? when do you incubate ? What is the control value for APTT, what is prolonged ?
Sample and sample preparation is the same as PT. Reagent contains Phospholipids. Starter pipette puts in CaCl2 (Calcium..), Incubate after APTT reagent and before CaCl2. Control is 28-40 in our lab, prolonged is more than 9sec longer
Thrombin time : sample, sample preparation, what does reagent contain, how is the buffer called, what is control, what is prolonged
Sample, sample preparation is like PT, APTT. Reagent contains Thrombin, Buffer is called Owren buffer. Control time is 14-22sec, longer is >8sec
Principle of Fibrin Monomer(FM) Test
Formed during intravascular activation of coagulation. In the reagent FM are coupled to human RBCs (O-) and if FM are present in plasma, hemagglutination will occur. A fast and specific method
D-dimer : what method are possible, what is their bases
Semiquantitative and quantitative methods. All are based on immunological detection of D-dimer.
D-Dimer : what is the sample, what is the principle of the immunological methods, when do you read the results, what is the result if positive, what if negative. What can give FP results.
Sample - same as TP/ATTP/TT. Principle - reagent contains latex conjugated specific Ab against D-dimer domain of cross-linked fibrin. The results are read at the 3rd min after mixing. If positive (agglutination), D-dimer >2mg/L, if negative <0.25mg/L. FP results --> RF in plasma
Bleeding time - when do you wipe the blood, what is the reference, what is the maximum time, how much pressure do you apply on the tourniquet
Wipe every 30sec, refernce 2.5-9.5min, Maximum time is 20min, 40mmHg
What are the possible methods for determining Urea cc ?
a. Direct chemical methods (old)
b. Indirect enzymatic method :
1. determining NH4+ formation from urea using Urease
2.enzymatic UV kinetic method (NH4 is furhter degraded by GLDH, consuming NADH which decrease is measured)
3.Conductometric method
4.Ionselective electrode
What are the possible methods for determining Creatinine cc ?
A. Methods based on Jaffe reaction : 1.Endpoint Jaffe reaction, 2.Kinetic Jaffe reaction
B. Enzymatic methods : 1.Partly enzymatic, 2.Completely enzymatic UV
What is the principle of the Jaffe reaction for Creatinin ?
What is the process of the Kinetic Jaffe reaction ? What gives falsely high and falsely low results ?
-Creatnine in alkaline solution gives an orange product with Picric acid. In simple End-point jaffe reaction we must perform deproteinisation to ensure specificity.
Kinetic Jaffe - Fast, can be easily automated. Creatinine is only measured from 30sec to 2min to avoid interference by other component (proteins, glucose, ketos). Falsely high - ketone bodies (DKA), falesely low - bilirubin
What is the process of the enzymatic methods of creatinine determination ?
Partyl enzymatic method - creatinine is degraded to ammonia by creatinine aminohydrolate. The ammonia is detected by ionselective electrode.
Completely enzymatic - creatinine is converted to creatine by creatine hydrolase, and this is further detected by reactin with Creatin Kinase
Which urine sample types are there ? Which sample is most preffered ? when do you use collected urine ?
1. Random
2. First morning urine
3. Collected , 24h.
Preffered sample is first-morning urine (concentrated, acidic). Collected urine is used for clearance, proteinuria
How long can urine be kept ?
It is recommened that urinalysis and sediment be done within 30min. Urine can be kept for 2 hours at +4C
For how long do you submerge urine test strips into the urine ? when do oyu read the results ? what is the bases of the test-strips ?
Dip for 1-2sec, read after 1min, bases is dry-chemical reactions
Urine specific gravity (reagent, reference range)
Urine pH (indicator, normal range, special)
White blood cells (indicator, principle)
Specific gravity - cations cause color change of the bromothymicblue indicator. Ref 1005-1030.
URine pH - Methyl Red, Bromothymicblue. Normal pH 5-6. Vageterians may have higher values.
WBC - Esterase enzyme in granulocytes cleaves indoxylester into indoxyl which forms a purple dye with diazonium. Normal is no color.
Urine nitrite (principle, indicator). Urine protein (indictaor, principle). Urine glucose
Bacteria in urine turn nitrate into nitrite which can be visualized by hte Griess probe. Protein --> bromophenoblue indicator is set to acidic pH by a buffer, where it is yellow. In the presence of proteins it switches into green-blue depending on cc. Quantiative determination ca be done using the Biuret reaction (?). Urine glucose --> GOD-POD reaction, should be totally negative in urine.
Urine ketone bodies (principal, can not detect). UBG (important to..., indicator). Bilirubin (indicator, store sample in..). Blood (indicator)
Keton bodies - Principle is Legal probe, use Nitropussid Na. Detects only Acetone and Acetoacetate. UBG --> wait till the sample cools off, diazoniumsaltt forms a red color azo dye with UBG. Store sample in dark.
Bilirubin --> Transformation of diaoniumsalt into colored substance. Store in dark. Blood --> hemoglobin catalyzes the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine.
Urine sediment analysis - where and how do you count casts, where and how do you count cells and other elements. What is the normal range of sediment components in adults ?
Casts - 10 LPF with 10-20x objective. Cells, other - 10-20 HPF at 40x objective. Bacteria - semiquantitative.
Normal range in adults - 1 RBC, 1-2 WBC, 1 superficial urothelium per 4-5HPF
Which epithelial cells can be found in urine sediment ?
Tubular epithel - larger than leukocytes (13micron). Round cells, large nucleus. Appear during fever and ATN. Urothelium - large (30micron), round, usually mononucleated cells. SC epithelial cells - polygonal large (50-60micron) with central small nucleus, usually from contamination with vaginal cells
Name the base of urine casts, and 3 types
Cylinidrcal shape, formed in the distal tubules. Base matrix is Tamm-Horsfall proteins. Final composition is dependant on pH and presence of components in urine.
Hyaline casts - only Tamm-Horsfall. Fatty casts, Hemoglobin casts (brown color, from eryhtrocyte casts)
Name the urine sediment crystals and their shape
Cysteine - hexagonal plates
Uric acid - barrel or rosttes
Calcium oxalate - envelope
Triple phosphate (struvite) - coffin-lid
Name 3 methods to determine Na, K cc. Two possible false results.
1. Atomic absorption (only reference)
2. Flame photometry : ref range Na 135-145, K 3.6-5mmol/L
3. Ionselective electrod ISE: ref range Na 137-150, K 3.5-5.3.
False results : Hemolysis --> increased potassium. Stored blood sample - even without hemolysis, plasma in contact with cells will render their membranes defective leading to increase in K --> this tendency increases in cold !!
When can pseudohyponatremia occur ?
With a hyperlipemic or hyperproteinemic sample measured by flame photometry or indirect potentiometry (diluted !)
Name 2 lab assays for determination of blood glucose
1. GOD-POD-PAP assay (Trinder)
2. Hexokinase asasy
What is the principle of the Trider method for blood glucose, how is the glucose calculated, what is the ref range
Principle is that glucose is convereted to gluconic acid by GOD and also H2O2 is formed. H2O2 reacts with PAra-Amino-PHenazone and Peroxidase to form a color product. Glucose is calclued by the (Sample(abs)/Standard(abs))x7.9. Ref range is 3.6-6mmol/L (maximum is 30mmol/L, more than that have to dilute first)
Sources of error in Trinder method for blood glucose (falsely high(also prevention), low)
Falsely low - glucose level may decrease by 5%/h if plasma or serum is not seperated from cells of blood within 2h. Glycolysis can be preented by using Sodium Fluoride containing tubes. Falsely high - if a sample is lipemic and serum blank is not substracted from result.
What is the diff in glucose values obtained from whole blood using home devices ? Can home devices be used to diagnose DM ? What is the principle of home devices ?
Whole blood glucose is 12% lower (due to water content). Home devices cannot be used for dx, only for monitoring. Home devices (test-strips) use either a colour scale or a reflectance photometer.
What are 3 tests used for Urine glucose examination ?
Qualtitative tests :
1. Nylander test - detection of reducing substances. In presence of reducing substanes, bismuth is liberated and solution turns black. Non-specific.
2. Reagent strips containing GOD-POD and a chromogen (upper limit 1g/L)
3. Quantitative tests (polarimeter, GOD-POD for 24h collected urine)
Two tests for detection of Ketone bodies in urine . FP ?
1. Legal test : Na nitroprussid is added to urine and is alkalinated by NaOH till its red. In case of keto bodies in urine the color does not change. If they are not present the color fades (!).
2. Reagent strips based on the Legal test. FP --> presence of phenylketones or L-DOPA
What is the visual effects of the differnt lipids on serum/plasma ? What are the values ?
Serum/plasma are kept at 4C for 24h. CM form a creamy top layer. VLDLs cause turbidity. LDLs and HDL have no effect on visual appearance. If sample is clear ---> Tg<2.5mmol/L. If lightly turbid >2.5mmol/L. If very turbid Tg>6.5mmol/L
Steps of Cholesterol assay
1. Cholesterol ester + Cholesterol esterase --> Cholesterol + O2 + Cholesterol oxidase --> Cholesterol + H2O2. H202+aminoantipirin + Peroxidase --> Chinoimine (colored).
Also note that another method measures the reduction in oxygen in the cholesterol oxidase reaction.
What is the reference range for cholesterol ? What can increase cholesterol values ?
There is no ref range for cholesterol. There are risk limits. Risk limit is 5.2mmol/L, treatment is required at >6.8mmol/L.
Chol values are increased by venous compression or standing.
Name 3 methods for HDL measurement
1. Precipitation of B/PreB lipoproteins by Mg2-Phospho-Wolframate. The HDL reamins in supernatent and can be determined.
2. Ultracentrifugation/Electrophoresis
3. Direct measurement using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and anti-apoprotein B/CIII (??)
3 methods for LDL calculation, what is the maximum Tg level for the Fridewald calculation to be valid. What are the LDL limits ?
1. Friedewald calculation
2. Precipitation of HDL/VLDL by heparing containing agents and measuring the remaining LDL
3. homogenous assays using blocking or solubilization of other classes to achieve specificty of LDL. Limit for Friedewald is 4.5mmol/L Tg.
LDL - <3.4 good, >4.8mmol/L treatment is needed.
What is the process for Tg determination ? what are the limits ?
Tg + lipase,esterase --> glycerol +ATP +glycerol kinase --> G-3-P.
G3P+02+G3P oxidase --> dihydroxiaceton phosphat+H2O2 +4aminophenazon --> peroxidase -->kinomin (color). ref range : <29year --> <1.35mmol/L
<39year --> <1.68
>40year --> <1.76
What is the process of determining total CK ? What is the ref range ?
NAC-Activated UV kinetic test.
Presence of CK will create Creatine from creatinphosphate + ATP, the ATP will then be used in a hexokinase reaction that produces G6P which will then be hydrogenized to 6-phosphoglucnate + NADPH. Change from NADP to NADPH is measured. (NADPH absorbs at 340nm). Ref range at 37C is 24-195 U/L
What are 3 methods used to determine CK isoenzymes ?
1.CK-MB mass concenetration by immunoassay - recommened method, expensive
2. Immuno-inhibition assay : it is assumed there are no CK-BB and macroCKs in the sample. M unit is inhibited and thus CK-MM is inhibited and the only activity measured is of MB (multiply it by 2 !!). Ref range - CK-MB ratio to total CK is 0-6%, CK-MB<24 U/L.
3. Electrophoresis-densitometry (slow, reliable, less quantitative)
Which CK isoFORMS are characteristic of MI ?
CK-MB2, CK-MM3 - no post-translational lysine cleavage of the C terminal
What is the principal of LDH measurement in MI ?
LD catalyzes pyruvate to lactate while converting NADH To NAD. Absorbance decrease is measured at 340nm. Ref - 230-460U/L.
Also - electrophoresis for the LDH flip phenomenon
Myoglobin as an MI marker, Troponins as an MI marker
Myoglobin - rises 2h after, decays within 10-16h. Sensitive, non-specific.
Troponins - Most cardiac specific is cTnI. Troponins can be elevated in kidney failure and heart failure.
Both troponins and myoglobin can be checked by immunochemical assays.
Name 4 methods for determination of serum bilirubin
1. Direct spectrophotometry
2. Jendrassik-Grof method
3. HPLC
4. Dry chemistry method
What is the principle of the direct spectrophotometry method for serum Bilirubin ?
Bilirubin absorbs at 455nm (if oxyhemoglobin interefes measure it at 575 and substract) -- can only be used in newborns which do not yet have other interfering compounds in their plasma.
What is the principle of the Jendrassik-Grof method of serum bilirubin ?
Bilirubin reacting with a diazo-sulfanyylic acid is transformed to a color product called Azobilirubin which is measured at 580nm. Conjugated bilirubin directly reacts with the diazo-sulfanylic acid while unconjugated only in the presennce of coffein. Reference < 20microMol/L
Which two tests are used to determine urine bilirubin ?
1. Rosin test - a green ring is visible if bilirubin is present
2. EL-U-Test strip - reaction of bilirubin and diasonium salt immersed onto the strip test. Check color after 1 min (!!) after dipping.
Which two tests are available to determine urine UBG ?
1. Ehrlich's reaction
2. EL-U-Test strip
What is the process of the Ehrlich's reaction for measuring urine UBG ?
Let urine cool down first, use fresh urine. Ehrlich's reagent is p-dimethyl Amino-benzaldehide. UBG and stercobilinogen form an intense red color with Ehrlich's reagent.
What is the principle of the EL-U-Test strip for urine UBG ? What are the normal values of UBG in urine ?
UBG reacts with a diasonium salt resulting ina red color azo-dye. Check color after 1 min.
Ref : >1.7micromol/L normal, borderline >17micromol/L, pathological >68micromol/L