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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two types of chromosomes?
Autosomes and sex chromosomes.
Why do males determine the sex of an offspring?
Because they produce both X and Y gametes.
What are body cells also called?
What are 3 reasons Thomas Hunt Morgan worked with fruit flies to study sex-linked traits?
a. Fruit flies are cheaply raised in common laboratory glassware
b. Females only mate once and lay hundreds of eggs
c. Fruit fly generation time is short, allowing rapid experiments
An X-linked gene is...
any gene located on the X chromosome that are missing on the Y chromosome
Red-Green colour blindness and hemophila are...
sex-linked trait
When is a linkage group NOT formed?
During crossing over
What does a genetic map show?
LOCI- the location of a gene on a chromosome.
What are mutations?
Changes in genes or chromosomes(# or structure) that can be passed to offspring.
What is monosomy?
When an individual only has one of a type of chromosome
(Turner's = one X)
What is trisomy?
When an individual has three chromosomes for one paticular chromosome (Trisomy 21[Down's] and Klinefelter)
What is nondisjunction?
When chromosomes fail to seperate properly during meiosis; cause of chromosomal disorders.
What is polyploidy?
where the offspring have more than two sets of chromosomes occurs often in plants
What is inversion?
when a piece of a chromosome breaks off & reattaches to the same place but in the reverse order
What is translocation?
occurs when a chromosome segment breaks off & attaches to a different chromosome
What are deletions?
occur when the end of a chromosome breaks off & is lost
What are duplications?
occur when a section of a chromosome is doubled
What are changes in genes caused by?
change in structure of the DNA
Gene mutation is caused by...
DNA bases substituted, added, or removed