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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who discovered DNA from open wounds?
Johann Friedrich Mieschner, who called it nuclein.
What is a nucleotide?
the monomer for all nucleic acids
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
1. phosphate group(one or more)

2. 5-Carbon sugar

3. Nitrogen-containing base (A,G,T,C)
What are the nitrogen bases named?
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
Who discovered monomers DNA?
Erwin Chargaff
Which base pairs go with which? (complementary base pairing)
A=T, C=G
equal number of each
Do proteins or DNA, both found in chromosomes, control heredity?
Who proposed the correct model of the double helix?
Watson and Crick
Why wasn't Rosalind Franklin able to recieve the Nobel Prize in 1962?
She died of ovarian cancer in 1958.
When was the Human Genome Project finished?
What is DNA?
a nucleic acid

a polymer containing four types of duplicated monomers
What is the "backbone" of DNA made of?
a sugar-phosphate
What are the nitrogenous bases/rungs held together with?
Hydrogen bonds
Are hydrogen bonds weak or strong?
Which human cell does not contain a nucleus paked with DNA?
a mature red blood cell
All living things have the same...
...four nucleotide bases of DNA.
How does DNA duplicat itself?
DNA helicase enzyme breaks hydrogen bonds and seperates strands

DNA poymerase adds new nucleotides to the exposed bases
What does DNA code for?
1. make proteins
2. control cellular growth+metabolism
How does DNA control cells?
By "turning on/off" genes in tissues.
What is RNA?
Ribonuclic acid, found in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
What nitrogen base does RNA contain?
What are the base pairings of Uracil?
A-U and C-G
What is mRNA?
messenger RNA, single, uncoiled, STRAIGHT strnad of nuclueic acid.

copies DNA's intructions + carries them

3 consecutive bases on mRNA are called a codon
What is tRNA?
transfer RNA, shape=cloverleaf

Carries amino acids to ribosomes
What it rRNA?
Ribosomal RNA, globular shape, make up the small and large subunits of ribosomes
How is a protein formed?
the linkage of individual amino acids, forming a peptide bond.
What is a chain of amino acids called?
What are amino acids?
sequence of 3 bases on DNA that are too large to leave the nucleus.
What is trascription?
in the nucleus where the DNA's instructions for making proteins are copied
What is translation?
in the cytoplasm where amino acids are linked together using the copied instructions from transcription