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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define perimenopause
From onset of menopausal symptoms to 1 year after last menstrual period.
HALLMARK of menopausal transition?
Variation in menstrual cycles?
What is notable about hormone levels in menopausal women?
Loss of follicles in egg results in a decrease in estrogen.

Estrogen acts as a negative feedback on LH and FSH. Thus LH and FSH levels are increased in menopause.
When does menopausal transition start?
Around 47 years. Can last around 4 years, though 2-8 is normal. Smoking and race can play factors.

Dramatic hormone fluctuations.
What are common symptoms of menopausal transition?
Vasomotor "hot flashes"...loss of libido due to estrogen loss.

Night sweats, insomnia too.
How do hormone levels fluctuate during menopausal transition?
Dramatic changes.

This is why women have irregular bleeding because hormonal levels fluctuate so drastically.
What vaginal changes can occur during menopause?
Decrease in estrogen can result in vaginal atrophy. Can result in painful intercourse.

Incontinence with urination because bladder is estrogen sensitive and thus atrophies.
Why are there skin changes during menopause?
Again, decrease estrogen.

Decreased estrogen affects collagen metabolism. Loss of skin integrity and elasticity.

Facial hair growth and hair loss can be a result of a shift in estrogen:androgen ratio, resulting in decrease binding globulin and increase in free testosterone.
What are late-term sequelae of menopause?

Coronary heart disease

What is estrogen effect on coronary heart disease?
Estrogen is a vasodilator and can help endothelium resist plaque formation.

Estrogen also helps keep the LDL/HDL ratio in good balance. Loss of estrogen causes bad shift.
What is estrogen's effect on osteoporosis?
Estrogen keeps osteoclast/osteoblast balance on side of bone formation.

Without estrogen, resorption OUTPERFORMS building of bone
Is it possible to diagnose menopause based on lab levels?
FSH will be increased...but this does fluctuate at other life periods.
How long can hot flashes last? How do you treat?
Hot flashes best treated with Hormone Therapy!

can last from as little as 2 months to up to 5 years.
If there is heavy abnormal bleeding during perimenopause or bleeding post-menopsual, what should we think about?
Think about endometrial hyperplasia, cancers.
In the uterus, all things are estrogen sensitive except for?
What type of women will more likely have osteoporosis?
White, frail, small women.

Low calcium diet

Early menopause is a risk factor for coronary heart diase / osteoporosis.
Yes! Increased exposure of decreased estrogen.
What is a good thing about menopause?
Won't feel symptoms of benign reproductive conditions like fibroids, endometriosis.
What do LOW-DOSE Oral Contraceptives offer to women with menopausal symptoms?
TREATS SYMPTOMS...regulates menstrual flow and treats hot flashes.
What is the most important component towards healthy menopausal transition?
Lifestyle changes.