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### 23 Cards in this Set

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 When did 3D echocardiography begin and how was it performed? 3D Echo started in the 1960s and it was performed by taking parallel scans and putting them together post-exam. 3D Echo in the 1970s and 1980s 2D images were tracked and put together into a 3D render post-exam. 3D Echo in the 1990s 3D Echo was able to be performed real-time, giving volumetric values and displaying cardiac function. Freehand 3D Acquisition An older method of acquiring 2D images for composing a 3D image. Bulky probe with a spatial locator attached. Which 3D Acquisition technique utilizes the Cartesian Coordinate System? Freehand 3D Acquisition with spatial location tracking. Mechanically Driven 3D Acquisition An older method of acquiring 2D images for composing a 3D image. Images obtained in intervals. More uniform than Freehand 3D Acquisition. True or False: The overall quality of your 3D image will be better if you capture more images? False. While your 3D reconstruction will be better you will have more motion artifact. What is the optimal number of images required to adequately asses the Mitral Valve (When the Freehand/Mechanical Methods were used)? More than 6 What was the optimal number of images required to adequately asses Left Ventricular Function (When the Freehand/Mechanical Methods were used)? 4-6 The first generation of Real-Time 3D Probes had how many elements? 256 (As compared with upwards of 3000 today.) How many elements does a Matrix-array transducer have? Over 3000 Newer probes have what advantages over the sparse-array probes of the 90s? Smaller Transducer Footprint Improved side-lobe Suppression Greater Sensitivity Harmonics What are the three different acquisition modes of the Matrix-Array Transducers? Real-Time (approximately 50 degrees x 30 degrees) Zoom Mode (30 x 30 with greater resolution) Wide-angle Mode What is Wide-angle Mode and how does it work? Wide-angle mode requires EKG gating and merges four consecutive images from four consecutive beats into a single image. Halted respiration is preferred. True or False: Wide-angle Mode for Matrix-array transducers has a greater resolution than Zoom Mode in the same transducer? False. Zoom Mode has a much greater resolution. What is the significance of the Siemens SC2000? It acquires a full-volume image in a single heartbeat instead of in 4 consecutive beats. Important for patients with arrhythmias. What are potential problems with EKG Gating? Varied Respiration Arrhythmias What is segmentation? Segmentation is the process the machine uses to extract anatomical features from raw data. True or False: 3D Echo is different from 2D Echo in terms of standard view descriptions. True. 2D Echo is defined by plane, while 3D Echo views are defined by volumes. What are the 3 assessments required for a complete 3D study? Ventricular Function Valvular Morphology Hemodynamic Status What does the sagittal plane correspond to? It corresponds to a vertical long axis view What does a coronal plane correspond to? It corresponds to a 4 chamber view What does a transverse plane correspond to? It corresponds to a short axis view.