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59 Cards in this Set

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Anatomical Pathology
is overseen by a medical doctor or osteopathic physician who is Board Certified in Pathology.
Clinical Pathology
Diagnosis of disease and the care of patients as well as to the prevention of disease
Congress passed the Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act (CLIA) 1988
establish minimum standards for clinical laboratories.
CLIA
established minimum educational and experience requirements for all clinical laboratory personnel.
-also clearly defined testing categories according to their level of complexity
waive tests
Tests that are very simple to perform and require little to no specimen preparation
-E.g.; blood glucose levels
Moderately complex testing
persons are authorized to perform them who have had at least 2 year degree in laboratory science.
Highly complex tests
require more elaborate specimen preparation and interpretation of results must be perform by a laboratory professional with at least a Bachelor’s Degree.
Provider Performed Microscopy
providers who use microscopic analysis in their office or clinic to aid in diagnosis must be certified for provider-performed microscopy.
Microscopy
Investigation of minute objects by use of a Microscope.
Hematology
Medical Specialty that pertains to the anatomy, physiology, pathology, symptomatology, and therapeutics related to the blood and blood-forming tissues
Urinalysis
– analysis of the urine
Clinical chemistry
denoting symptoms and clinical course of a disease and the science concerned with atomic composition of substances , the elements and their interactions, as well as the formation, decomposition and properties of molecules.
Molecule
The smallest possible quantity of a di tri, or polyatomic substance that retains the chemical properties of the substance.
Coagulation
that rate at which the blood clots and bleeding rates are studied. The process of changing from a liquid to a solid, especially of blood
Microbiology
the science concerned with microorganisms, including fungi, protozoa, bacteria and viruses.
Protozoa
consist of single functional cell units or aggregation of non-differentiated cells held together and not forming tissues
Immunology
The science concerned with the various phenomena of immunity, induced sensitivity, and allergy. The structure of the immune system.
Blood Bank
– it is the responsibility of the Laboratory to maintain the Blood Bank, that it is stored properly and that enough of it is kept on hand
Cap
Many clinical Laboratories are accredited by the College of American Pathologists
(JACHO)
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
AABB
American Board of Bioanalysis
The 7 goals of JCAHO
1. Improve the effectiveness of communication among caregivers
2. Improve the safety of using high-alert medications
3. improve the safety of using infusion pumps
4. improve the effectiveness of clinical alarm systems
5. improve the accuracy of patient identification
6. eliminate wrong site, wrong patient and wrong procedure surgery. The tissue committee is responsible for review of surgeries performed in the hospital and tissue removed to insure the surgery was necessary
7. reduce the risk of health care acquired infections
Quality Control
often uses statistics and looks at outcomes, average length of stay, infection rate, discharges (expired?, home?, nursing home?) so that the care you provide you can monitor.
Molecular Diagnostics
a patient sample is searched for specific RNA/DNA base sequences or other regulatory molecules associated with cell functions.
Biomarkers
molecules that can be detected in a person’s blood to confirm a diagnosis or in many cases, predict the risk of disease in the near future.
- lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2.
William Roentgen
inventor of the x-ray
Internal Anatomy
to be able to view the body internally and look at organs and search for tumors, organs no longer functioning or looking suspicious.
Ionize
means to separate into ions; to disassociate atoms or molecules into electrically charged atoms or radicals
ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable)
which means that measures should be taken to deliver the lowest level of exposure to the patient while still gaining the intended result.
Radiography
or the use of diagnostic x-rays, is the most commonly thought of procedures in the imaging department
Radiologists
specialize in interpreting images of the body produced by modalities such as x-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans and ultrasound.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
a new technique first used in the 1970’s.
Images are produced by a powerful magnet that interacts with different molecules in the body.
Therapeutic radiology
also known as radiation oncology or radiation therapy, is used to treat or cure cancer with high-energy radiation.
Physical Therapy
Also known as “physiotherapy”
scientific base and widespread clinical applications in the restoration, maintenance, and promotion of optimal physical function
Manubrium
The portion of the sternum or of the malleus that represents the handle of a sword or hammer
Functional activities for physical therapy
– balance training
Adaptive equipment
walkers, wheelchairs, canes, reachers, special clothing
Physical Therapy Specialties of the American Physical Therapy Association:
cardiovascular/pulmonary, clinical electrophysiologic, geriatric, neurologic, orthopedic, pediatric, sports and women’s health.
The mission of the respiratory therapy department
is to provide a continuum of “evidence based patient care” within an integrated delivery system, documented by patient outcomes.
Oximetry
procedure used to measure oxygen saturation
, RT can be reclassified into 5 major “product lines”
1. therapy modalities
2. oxygen therapy
3. ventilator management
4. physiological monitoring
5. specialized procedures and diagnostics
nebulizer therapy
a mist that gets medication down into the lungs, either plain air or oxygen, that is forced.
incentive spirometry
– to increase your lung capacity, especially after surgery. Usually given a specific time, prevent pneumonia.
Cardiac Monitoring
done with an EKG and can also use an ultrasound to watch the blood flow, in and out of the heart and lungs, that there is no congestion, damage to the heart muscle
Stress Testing
seeing what tolerance and how the heart acts under guided exercise regimen, with physician present
Polysomnogram
– Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of relevant normal and abnormal physiologic activity during sleep
The Mission of the SLP department:
Assess and treat patients with communication and swallowing disorders
Be a patient advocate
Educate patients, caregivers, other health professionals
Aphasia
difficulty understanding or using language
Drug Distribution
inpatients receive the majority of drugs dispensed by the pharmacy.
three categories of drug distribution
1. items sent to the nursing units for floor stock inventory (rubbing compounds, antiseptics for wounds, and bandages)
2. patient-chargeable stock items kept in the nursing unit (disposable enema packs, and other disposable external preparations.
3. common prescription drugs that are dispensed and charged only upon receipt of a prescription by a physician.
This category of prescription drugs represents the vast majority of drugs used and accounts for the greatest costs in the pharmacy
Unit dose system
the pharmacy either packages the medication or purchases prepackaged medications in specific doses. Allows for better control and less waste of drugs
Medication Dispensing Errors
1. the right patient
2. The right drug
3. the right time
4. the right dose
5. the right route of administration
Nonproprietary
a drug’s generic name is the scientific name by which the drug is known, based on its chemical substance and irrespective of the mfg.
Hatch-Waxman Act
Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984,generic drug companies do not have to repeat expensive clinical trials.
Contraindication
computer systems can indicate when a drug should not be used.
Receptionists
Typically the first point of contact for a patient or patron
Registered dieticians
plan the nutritional component of the patient care plan
Interpreters
Provide a verbal communication bridge between patient and provider
Patient services departments
Focus on patients and on improving patient satisfaction and quality of care
Have direct patient contact and involved in patient care continuum