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20 Cards in this Set

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individual segment of a backbone
vertebra
earliest fish; had backbone but no jaws or paired fins
agnathan
earliest fish; first to exhibit jaws
acanthodian
strong, lightweight, flexible connective tissue
cartilage
term that describes an organism with the ability to live on land
terrestrial
- extinct crocodilelike reptile from which the dinosaurs evolved
thecodont
the single supercontinent of the Triassic period that included all presently
known continents
Pangaea
referring to an animal whose body temperature is determined by the
temperature of the environment
ectothermic
refers to an animal that generates its own body heat
endothermic
- extinct order of reptiles thought to be endothermic that likely gave rise to mammals
therapsid
fingerlike projection from a gill where respiratory gases enter and leave the blood
gill filament
opening at the rear of a fish’s cheek cavity where water exits
gill slit
arrangement in fish respiratory system where water going over the gills and blood in the gill filaments flows in opposite directions
countercurrent flow
- tubelike structure in the kidneys that filters wastes from the body and retains useful molecules; also regulates the body’s salt and water balance
nephron
- specialized sensory system running the length of both sides of a fish’s body
lateral line
hard plate that covers the gills on each side of the head of bony fishes
operculum
the gas-filled sac of bony fishes used to regulate their buoyancy
swim bladder
group of bony fishes with highly mobile fins, thin scales, a swim bladder, and symmetrical tails; largest group of living fish
teleost
internal, baglike respiratory organ of a vertebrate that enables gas exchange between the air and the blood
lung
vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart
septum
pulmonary vein