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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Normative
or purpose- focuses on design
positive
focuses on advancing science
DIME
Dual independent map encoding, created for US bureau of census and made a data base for holding census data
GISystems
Technology and Tools
System of: Hardware, Software, Network, Data, People, and Procedures
GIScience
Lies in the core of Society, Computers, and the Individual.
Fundamental Issues raised by the use of GIS
GIStudies
the systematic study of the use of geographic information
Roger's Diffusion Model
5 steps and interpreted
Innovators - Risk Takers
Early adopters - Opinion Formers
Early Majority - Peer Folowers
Late Majority Mass market followers
Laggards- Oriented to the past
Representation
3 characteristics
Needed to Convey Information
Fits info into a standard form/model
Almost always simplify the truth being represented
Interval
If differences between values make sense. Celsius is a good example
Ratio
when ratios between make sense. Kelvin- having an absolute zero, no arbitrary starting point
Discrete Object
Viewingt he world as a table top, objects with well defined boundaries, that are countable, they can be points, lines, or area, Mainly should stay persistent through time
Continous Field
Properties that vary continously over space
pH,Population Density, Atmospheric Pressure/temp
Raster
divides the world into square cells
Discrete- as collection of one or more cells
Fields- assigning attribute values to the cells
Vector
All lines are captured as points connected by precisely straight lines at (x,y) cordinates
Spatial Heterogeneity
The tendency of geographic places and regions to be different from each other
Spatial Autocorrelation
Degree with which near and more distant things are interrelated determined both by similarities in position and attributes
Temporal Autocorrelation
Relationships between consecutive events in time
isotropic surface
surface with the same properties everwhere (iso-equal)(tropic-direction)
distance decay
interaction decreases with distance
spheroid
3D shape obtained by rotating an ellipse about its axis
conformal
ensures that the shapes of small features on earth's surface are preserved, preserves the angles
Why GIS Matters
ALmost everything happens somewhere. Most decisions have geographic consequences. Knowing is critically important.
Why GIS is special
Its multi-dimensional (X,Y), Its voluminous- takes up alot of room, May be represented at different levels of spatial resolutions, Often must be represented on a Flat surface, It is time consuming