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61 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 functions of the nervous system?
1- receiveing information
2- responnding inormation
3- maintaining homeostasis
A message carrying cell, nerve cell
neuron
what is the structure of a neuron
a- dendrite
b- cell body
c- axon
Carries impulses toward the cell body
dendrite
has threadlike extensions and carries a nucleus
cell body
carries impulses away from the cell body
axon
what are the three kinds of neurons
sensory
interneuron
motor neuron
picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse.
sensory neuron
a neuron that carries nerve impulses from one neuron to another. Some interneuons pass impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurson
interneuron
sends an impulse to a muscle, and the muscle contracts in response
motor neuron
How does a nerve impulse travel?
A nerve impulse travels from the sensory neuron to the interneuron then to the motor neuron
Made up of billions of interneurons
brain
interprets input from the senses, controls the movement of skeletal muscles and carries ou complex mental processes.
cerebrum
coordinates the actions of your muscles and helps you keep you balance
cerebellum
controls involuntary actions
brainstem
is the link...between your brain and the peripheral nervous system
spinal cord
consists of a network of nerves all outside of the central nervous systm
has somatic and autonomic
peripheral nervous system
How many nerves make up the peripheral nervous system
43 pairs of nerves
12 pairs originate in the brain
31 pairs make up the spinal nerves that begin in the spinal cord
controls voluntary actions
somatic nervous system
controls involuntary actions
autonomic nervous system
An automatic response that occurs very rapidly and without conscious control
reflex
A bruise like injury of the brain
concussion
they occur when the spinal cord is cut or crashed
spinal cord injuries
your eyes respond to the stimulus of light. They convert that stimulus into impulses that your brain interprets enabling you to see
vision
How does light enter the eye?
when the rays of light strike the eye then strole the cornea. The light then passes to the pupil. The iris then regulates the amount of lifht entering the eye.
how is light focused?
light passes throught the pupil and strikes the lens. The lens focuses light.
How can you see an image
The retina contains 130 million receptor cells that respond to light. There are two types of receptros rods and cones. Rods enable you to see black and white cones enabling you to see color.
can see nearby objects clearly but have trouble seeing far away objecs
nearsightedness
can see distant objects clearly but cannot se nearby objects
farsightedness
How is sound produced
by vibrations
sound vibrations in the ear
The ear is structure to receive sound vibrations
How you hear
the fluid in the cochelea vibrates and stimulates receptors. Sensory neurons then send nerve impulses to the cerebrum through the auditory nerve
How do you get sense of balance?
above the cochlea in your inner ear is the semicircular canal, which is repsponsible for your sense of balance.
Cna distinguish 50 basic odors
nose
only four kinds of taste buds- sweet, sour, salty and bitter
tounge
found in all areas of your skin. Receptors in the skin respond to light touch, heavy pressure, pain, and temperature change
touch
legal drugs that help the body fight disease and injury
medicine
the deliberate misues of drugs for purposes other than medical uses
drug abuse
nausea, a fast irregular heartbeat, sleepiness, headaches, dizziness, and trembling
immediate efects of abused drugs
drug users need more and more of a drug to produce the same effect on the body
tolerance
the body becomes physically dependant on a drug
addiction
slow down the activity of the central nervous system
depressants
speed up body processes
stimulants
chemicals similar to hormones. may increase muscle size and strength
anabolic steroids
A drug found in many beverages
alcohol
vision blurred, speech becomes unclear, control of behavior is reduced, and judgement becomes poor
affects of alchol on the nervous system
heartbeat rate and blood pressure increases, with large amounts of alchol the heartbeat rate and blood pressure may decrease
affects of alcohol on the cardiovascular system
causes kidneys to produce more urine as a reesult the drinker loses more water than usual
affects of alcohol on the kidneys
blood flow to the skin increases causing rapid loss of body heat
affects of alcohol on the skin
over many years liver damge can result
affects of alcohol on the liver
alcohol is absorbed by stomach and passes to the bloodstream quickly
digestive system
can cause the destruction of cells in the brain and liver can lead to addiciton
long-term alcohol abuse
a disease where a person is physically and mentally addicted to alcohol
alcoholism
the clear tissue that covers the front of the eye
cornea
the opening through which light enters the eye
pupil
a circular structure that surrounds the upil and regulates the amount of light entering the eye. Gives the eye its color
iris
a flexibe structure that focuses light.
lens
the layer of reptor cells that lines the back of the eye
retina
the membrane that seperates the outer ear from the miidle ear and that vibrates when sound waves strike it
eardrum
a snail-shaped tube that is lined w/ receptors that respond to sound
cochlea
the structures in the ear that are responsible for your sense of balance.
semicircular canals.