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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When times are good, ________ maximized possible offspring
first choice in husband
When times are hard, ________ maximized possible offspring
females that choose more than one mate
Can secrete some fluid, associated with clitoris
vestibular bulbs
vestibular bulbs surround _____ and underlie _______
vestibule, labia minora
Erectile tissue of clitoris
Corpus cavernosum
Surrounds male urethra
corpus spongiosum
Fills with fluid to make penis erect. Provides stiffness
Corpus cavernosum
Bring testes up or down to regulate temperature
cremaster muscles
Line seminiferous tubules
Sertoli cells
Make sperm
Sertoli cells
lie between seminiferous tubules
leydig cells
sperm created here
seminiferous tubules
70% of semen volume
Seminal vesicles
makes pre-cum mucus
Bulbourethral gland
30% of semen volume
Prostate gland
Sympathetic axons release ________(_____of spinal cord)
norepinephrine, middle
Parasympathetic axons release ____ (_____ of spinal cord)
acetylcholine, bottom
flaccid: constricting _______, contracting ________
arterioles, trabecular walls
flaccid: blood readily exits the ______, so pressure within the ___________ is low
sinusoids, corpus cavernosum
Erect: Parasympathetic fibers release ____, ____ and _____
ACh, VIP and nitric oxide
Erect: _____ relaxes
smooth muscle
Erect: ____ increases levels of ______ in smooth muscle walls
Nitric oxide, cyclic GMP (cGMP)
Viagra (sildenafil) enhibits an enzyme that breaks down ____
Erect: blood flows ____ sinusoid
Flaccid: blood flows ____ sinusoid
out of
lubricating fluid seeps through vag walls
vascongestion and relaxation of walls promoted by
transudation promoted by
female sexual arousal measured with
a photoplethysmograph
“bad bed partner”; painful intercourse
_______ muscles aid ejaculation
2 types of striated muscle
bulbocavernosus, ischiocavernosus
neurons in Onuf’s nucleus contribute to ___
pudendal nerve
Testosterone: secreted by the ____ and _____
gonads, adrenal cortex
highest level of testosterone in women at...
terminates the growth of bones in puberty
high levels of progesterone at...
luteal phase
this hormone never enters the target cell
prostaglandins are a mixture of _____ and _____
hydrocarbons, lipids
this hormone enters the target cell
Posterior lobe of pituitary: controls ____ and ____
Oxytocin, vasopressin
Follicular phase- _____ phase in the ovaries; _____ phase in the uterus
Preovulatory, proliferative
Luteal phase- _____ phase in the ovaries; ____ phase in the uterus
Postovulatory, secretory
Corpus lutem releases...
BC- steroids indicate to the brain that
no GnRH is needed
Tamoxifen and raloxifene (SERMs) act on _____ receptors.
Tamoxifen is antagonist in ______ and an agonist in _____
breast tissue, uterus
Tamoxifen increases the risk of...
endometrial cancer.
Raloxifene is agonist in _____ but as antagonist in ...
bone tissue, breast and uterus
Raloxifene prevents..
Removal of masking proteins on the outer surface of the sperm by enzymes present in the uterus and oviducts.
Occurs when sperm reach the zona pellucida (protective membrane that surrounds the ovum). The sperm’s acrosome fuses with its outer membrane.
acrosome reaction
After 7 weeks, embryo referred to as
Sertoli and granulosa cells trigger the development of ____ cells in males and _____ cells in females
Leydig, Thecal
_____ and _____ cells trigger the development of Leydig cells in males and Thecal cells in females
Sertoli, granulosa
Developing testes in males secrete ______ from _____ cells,
anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), sertoli
Developing leydig cells secrete...
cloaca/urogenital sinus differentiates into
prostate gland, vaginal opening
urethral folds differentiate into
penis shaft, labia minora/outer vagina/crura
genital swellings differentiate into...
scrotum, labia majora
genital tubercle differentiates into
glans of penis and clitoris
Onuf’s nuleus in ____ spinal cord bigger in ___ than ___
sacral, men, women
innervates muscles associated with the root of the penis
onuf's nucleus
involved in the generation of sexual behavior typically shown by males such as mounting, intromission, and ejaculation
Medial Preoptic Area
_____ brains produce more serotonin than _____ brains
men's, women's
Men use ____ amygdala, while women use ____, for emotional memory
left, right
the growth zone near each end of a long bone
disorder: Lack gonadal hormones, do not enter puberty, infertile
disorder: Short stature, broad chest, loose skin around neck
disorder: Cardiovascular and renal defects
disorder: Single Y and 2 or more X’s (XXY, XXXY)
disorder: Learning disability-especially with language skills
disorder: Tallness, small testes, gynecomastia (breast development in men), feminine body contours, and sparse facial and body hair
disorder: Low testosterone, high leutenizing hormone, low sperm counts, low sex drive
disorder: Mutation in gene for androgen receptor
androgen insensitivity syndrome
disorder: XY individuals only
disorder: Testosterone can’t have the normal effect of making wolffian ducts into male reproductive tract and the precursors of the external genitalia follow the default pathway-female structures (clitoris, labia, etc.)
disorder: Do not menstruate, do not grow pubic or axillary hair, infertile
disorder: Do develop breasts because testes secrete some estrogens
disorder: Genetic defect in one of the enzymes that are involved in the synthesis of corticosteroid hormones in the adrenal cortex
disorder: Production of corticosteroids greatly reduced
disorder: Brain and pituitary sense this deficit and try to stimulate the adrenal cortex into increased production
disorder: Result is excessive growth (hyperplasia) of the adrenal cortex and an overproduction of the precursor steroids, which are then converted to a variety of androgens
disorder: effects only show in XX
true hermaphroditism
gonadal intersexuality
gonadal intersexuality genotype
usually xx
aromatization hypothesis explains why...
females aren’t masculinzed by maternal estrogens
unable to smell
reasoning m/f
memory m/f
Person sucking on penis
Person having penis sucked
too fond of wife
said that sex within marriage was not sin
St. Thomas Aquinas
Most Americans’ sexual morality based on
5 stages of transexuality
evaluation, real-life experience, hormones, surgery, follow-up
make vagina
Look for ____ surge 36 hours before ovulation
fertility drugs
Physically inject head of sperm into egg
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Of 11 high-number multiple pregnancies ___ of 48 stillborn
Estrogen antagonists like ____, _____ can sometime trigger ____
tamoxifen, clomiphene, ovulation
Fetus’ adrenal glands increase release of
_____ induce placenta to release even more ____
Corticosteroids, estrogen
Estrogen induces uterus and cervix to release _____ to soften cervix
drives uterine contractions
Norplant uses
Norplant increases
cervical mucus
Depo Provera uses
2 types of abortion
spontaneous, induced
2 types of induced abortion
therapeutic, elective
2 ways to induce abortion
surgical, medical
4 types of surgical abortions
D and C, D and E, induced labor, intact D and X
Dilation and Curettage is also called _____ and is performed in ____
vacuum aspiration, first trimester
Dilation and Evacuation is performed _____
early in second trimester
_____ is performed under general anesthesia
Dilation and Evacuation
Induced labor is performed _____
late in second trimester
Induce premature labor by injecting _____ into amniotic sac, or using ____
strong saline, prostaglandin
fetus is removed under anesthesia
Intact dilation and extraction is also called
partial birth abortion
2 drugs used for medical abortion
mifepristone, methotrexate
blocks progesterone receptors
Mifepristone (RU486)
chemotherapy drugs that kills rapidly dividing cell
Medical abortions are followed by
a prostaglandin that triggers contractions