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1157 Cards in this Set

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acute care nurse practitioner(ACNP)
Nurse trained to function in the absence of a physician.
advanced practice nurse (APN)
Nurse with a master's degree in nursing, advanced education in pharmacology and physical assessment, and certification and expertise in a specialized area of practice. An APN usually works in a critical, acute, restorative, or community health care agency.
American Nurses Association (ANA)
Organization of professional nurses in the United States that focuses on standards of health care, nurses' professional development, and economic and general welfare of nurses.
caregiver
One who contributes the benefits of medical, social, economic, or environmental resources to a dependent or partially dependent individual.
certified nurse-midwife (CNM)
Nurse who is educated in midwifery and possesses certification in accordance with criteria of the American College of Midwives.
certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA)
An RN who has received advanced training in an accredited program in anesthesiology.
client advocate
Role in which the nurse protects the client's human and legal rights and provides assistance in asserting those rights if the need arises.
clinical nurse specialist (CNS)
Nurse with a master's degree in nursing and expertise in a specific area of practice.
continuing education
Formal educational programs designed to further the knowledge, skills, and professional attitudes of practicing nurses.
in-service education
Instruction or training provided by an agency or institution to nurses practicing within that agency or institution.
International Council of Nurses (ICN)
International organization for professional nurses; the ANA and Canadian Nurses Association (CAN) are members.
National League for Nursing (NLN)
Organization of nurses and laypeople concerned with improving nursing education, nursing service, and the delivery of health care in the United States. The NLN is the official accrediting agency for nursing schools.
nurse administrator
Nurse in a management position with an agency who focuses on the delivery of nursing services.
nurse practitioner
Nurse with advanced training or education who provides primary care for nonemergency clients, usually in an outpatient or community setting.
nurse researcher
Nurse with graduate nursing education who investigates problems related to nursing practice.
professional organization
Association of professionals created to deal with issues of concern to the profession as a whole.
registered nurse (RN)
Health care professional who has completed a course of study at an accredited school of professional nursing and has passed an examination administered by a State Board of Nursing or the Canadian Nurses Association Testing Service.
adult day care centers
Centers that provide a variety of health and social services to specific client populations who live alone or with family in the community.
assisted living
Attractive long-term care setting with a homier environment and greater resident autonomy.
capitation
Method of paying a physician, hospital, or managed care system for annual services based on a fee per client.
discharge planning
Set of decisions and activities involved in providing continuity and coordination of nursing care when a client is discharged from a health care agency.
extended care facility
Institution providing medical, nursing, or custodial care for clients over a prolonged period.
home care
The provision of medically related professional and paraprofessional services and equipment to clients and families in their homes for health maintenance, education, illness prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, palliation, and rehabilitation.
integrated delivery networks (IDNs)
A set of providers and services organized to deliver a coordinated continuum of care to the population of clients served at a capitated cost.
managed care
Health care system in which there is administrative control over primary health care services. Redundant facilities and services are eliminated, and costs are reduced. Preventive care and health education are emphasized.
Medicaid
State medical assistance based on Title XIX of the Social Security Act. States receive 50% in matching federal funds to provide medical care and services to people meeting categorical and income requirements; covers home care services based on Medicare guidelines. Many innovative home care programs can be covered by Medicaid, as long as they meet the recipient's needs and cost less than institutionalization.
Medicare
Federal government insurance coverage for persons over 65 years of age (or disabled and under 65) who have paid into the Social Security or Railroad Retirement system; covers inpatient hospital charges and some home care services.
professional standards review organization
Organization that focuses on the evaluation of nursing care provided in a health care setting. The quality, effectiveness, and appropriateness of nursing care for the client are the foci of evaluation.
prospective payment system (PPS)
Method of reimbursement for health care services. It involves a fixed reimbursement for a medical condition/procedure regardless of client's length of stay.
rehabilitation
Restoration of an individual to normal or near-normal function following a physical or mental illness, injury, or chemical addiction.
resource utilization groups
A system for reimbursement used in the long term care setting.
respite care
Care that gives the primary care provider the opportunity to have time away. Respite care services can take place in the client's home, a hospital, or an extended care setting.
restorative care
Care settings that include but are not limited to inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation facilities, subacute care facilities, clinics, and home care agencies. The services provided in restorative care settings are designed to bring the client to the maximal level of health and function.
skilled nursing facility
Institution or part of an institution that meets criteria for accreditation established by the sections of the Social Security Act that determine the basis for Medicaid and Medicare reimbursement for skilled nursing care, including rehabilitation and various medical and nursing procedures. Law requires that policies designate which level of caregiver is responsible for the implementation of each policy; that the care of every client be under the supervision of a physician; that a physician be available on an emergency basis; that records be maintained regarding the condition and care of every client; that nursing service be available 24 hours a day; and that at least one full-time registered nurse be employed.
utilization review (UR)
Assessment of the appropriateness and economy of an admission to a health care facility or continued hospitalization.
vulnerable populations
Clients who are more likely to develop specific health problems.
acute care
Secondary and tertiary care; short-term care for medical conditions
globalization
The ability of health care providers to make their services more accessible globally.
Independent Practice Association (IPA)
Managed care organization contract physicians who are not members of the group and whose practices include fee-for-service and capitated patients
minimum data set (MDS)
Part of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) discussing the most appropriate health care interventions to support the health care needs of the residential population.
outliers
Clients with extended lengths of stay, well beyond allowed inpatient DRG days.
subacute care
Care for clients who need a greater intensity of care that usually provided in a skilled nursing facility who no longer require acute care.
utilization review (UR) committees
Committee that reviews the admissions, diagnostic testing, and treatments provided by physicians for clients receiving Medicare.
work redesign
The redesign of nursing units to make more services available on those units minimizing the need to transfer and transport clients across multiple diagnostic and treatment areas
community-based nursing
Acute and chronic care of individuals and families that enhances their capacity for self-care and promotes autonomy in decision-making.
community health nursing
Approach that merges knowledge from the public health sciences with professional nursing theories to safeguard and improve the health of populations in the community.
population
Collection of individuals who have in common one or more personal or environmental characteristics.
public health
Measures that we, as a society, collectively pursue to ensure the conditions in which people can be healthy.
public health nursing
An approach to nursing care that addresses the health of populations and their communities.
assumptions
Statements that describe concepts or connect two concepts that are factual and that are accepted as truths.
concepts
Mental formulations of objects or events that come from individual perceptual experience.
domain
Perspective and territory of a professional discipline.
environment situation (environment/situation)
All possible conditions affecting the client and the setting in which health care needs occur.
grand theory
Theory that requires further specification through research before it can be fully tested and applied.
input
Information that enters the system.
interdisciplinary theory
Theory that suggests a purposive and systematic view of phenomena specific to the discipline of the inquiry.
middle-range theory
Theory that is limited in scope and less abstract; it addresses specific phenomena or concepts and reflects nursing practice.
nursing theory
Organized framework of concepts and purposes designed to guide the practice of nursing.
output
End product of a system.
paradigm
Term used to denote the linkages of science, philosophy, and theory accepted by a discipline.
person
Recipient of care.
prescriptive theory
Theory addressing nursing therapeutics and the consequences of interventions.
theory
Set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that project a systematic view of phenomena.
nursing's paradigm
Links the person, health, environment/situation and nursing to direct the activities of the nursing profession, including knowledge development, philosophy, theory, education experience, research and practice.
anonymity
Nondisclosure of a client's or other person's name or identification; used in research to ensure the privacy of research subjects.
empirical data
Information that has been collected with use of the human senses and that can be verified through research.
evaluation research
Form of quantitative research that involves finding out how well a program, practice, procedure, or policy is working.
experimental study
Study designed to test cause-and-effect relationships between a treatment/intervention (independent variable) and a measured dependent variable.
hypothesis
Statement derived from a theory that predicts a relationship among variables representing concepts, constructs, or events.
nursing research
Detailed process in which a systematic study of a problem in the field of nursing is performed.
qualitative nursing research
Qualitative research involves inductive reasoning used to develop generalizations or theories from specific observations or interviews.
quantitative nursing research
Quantitative research focused on numerical data, statistical analysis, and controls to eliminate bias in findings.
research process
Systematic collection and analysis of data to obtain new knowledge, add to existing knowledge, or find solutions to problems.
surveys
Instruments designed to obtain information from populations.
bias
A preference or an inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial judgment; the opinions of the researcher will influence the results of the research.
clinical guidelines
Systematically developed statements about a plan of care for a specific set of circumstances involving a specific client population
generalizable
Results obtained from a scientific study that can be applied to the larger population
inductive reasoning
Making a conclusion based on a empirical data; develop generalizations or theories from specific observations or interviews.
performance improvement
An organization analyzes and evaluates current performance to use the results to develop focused improvement activities.
PICO question
Format to help state a research question discussing the Patient population of Interest; Intervention of interest; Comparison of interest; and Outcome
reliable
The results of the research can be replicated in other studies.
valid
The results of the research are true outside of the research environment.
variable
Concept, characteristic or trait that varies within the subjects
active strategies of health promotion
Activities that depend on the client being motivated to adopt a specific health program.
acute illness
Illness characterized by symptoms that are of relatively short duration, are usually severe, and affect the functioning of the client in all dimensions.
chronic illness
Illness that persists over a long period of time and affects physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual functioning.
health
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
health behavior change
Five stages of change from no intention to change (precontemplation) to maintaining a changed behavior (maintenance stage).
health behaviors
Activities through which a person maintains, attains, or regains good health and prevents illness.
health belief model
Conceptual framework that predicts a person's health behavior as an expression of personal health beliefs.
health promotion
The concept of motivating people to seek ways of decreasing the incidence and minimizing the results of illness or disability.
holistic health model
This model attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health. The model focuses on the all dimensions of the client, not just a physiological dimension, as important aspects of physical wellness.
illness
Abnormal process in which any aspect of a person's functioning is diminished or impaired as compared with the previous condition.
illness behavior
Ways in which people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the health care system.
illness prevention
Health education programs or activities directed toward protecting clients from threats or potential threats to health and toward minimizing risk factors.
passive strategies of health promotion
Activities that involve the client as the recipient of actions by health care professionals.
risk factor
Any internal or external variable that makes a person or group more vulnerable to illness or an unhealthy event.
secondary prevention
Activities directed toward early diagnosis and prompt intervention, thereby lessening the severity of a condition and enabling the client to return to the highest level of health at the earliest possible point.
primary prevention
True prevention; precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to clients who are considered physically and emotionally healthy
tertiary prevention
Occurs when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible.
evidence-based practice
The integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values taking into account a nurse's clinical experience, practice trends, and individual client preferences.
nurse educator
Nurse with a background in clinical nursing who works in a school of nursing as a faculty member, in a staff development department of a health care agency, or in an inpatient education department.
primary care
First contact in a given episode of illness that leads to a decision regarding a course of action to resolve the health problem.
cancer related fatigue
One of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatment; fatigue that can be described as paralyzing; the exact cause is unknown although a cancer relationship is present.
cancer survivor
An individual is considered a cancer survivor from the time of diagnosis, through the balance of his or her life.
chemotherapy
The use of chemicals to treat and eliminate cancer
hormone therapy
Treatment of disease or the processes of aging with the use of hormone replacement
lumpectomy
Removal of a lump for biopsy; most commonly used for diagnosing breast cancer.
mastectomy
Removal of the breast, usually for breast cancer
neuropathy
Damage to the nerves
oncology
The study of cancer
parethesias
Feeling of tingling or "pins and needles" in an extremity
posttraumatic stress disorder
Ongoing psychological reaction to a stressor
radiation therapy
Use of radiation to remove or destroy cancer cells
caring
Sense of dedication to another person.
comforting
Skillful and gentle performance of a nursing procedure.
acculturation
Process of intercultural borrowing between diverse peoples, resulting in a new and blended pattern.
assimilation
The result of an individual giving up his or her ethnic identity in favor of the dominant culture.
biculturalism
Term used to describe a person who has two culture's lifestyles or sets of values.
bilineal
Kinship extended to both the father's and mother's side of the family.
confianza
A Spanish term for caregivers who interact with the client in a personalistic, warm, friendly, and respectful manner.
cultural backlash
A counterculture effect when experience with the new or different culture is extremely negative and the culture is then rejected.
cultural care accommodation or negotiations
Adapt or negotiate with others for a beneficial or satisfying health outcome.
cultural care preservation and maintenance
Retain and/or preserve relevant care values so that clients can maintain their well-being, recover from illness, or face handicaps and/or death.
cultural care repatterning and restructuring
Reorder, change, or greatly modify clients' lifeways for a new, different, and beneficial health care plan.
cultural imposition
Using one's own values and lifeways as the absolute guide in dealing with clients and interpreting their behaviors.
cultural pain
May be suffered by a client whose valued way of life is disregarded by practitioners.
culturally congruent care
Care that fits the people's valued life patterns and set of meanings.
culture
Nonphysical traits such as values, beliefs, attitudes, and customs shared by a group and passed from one generation to the next.
culture bond syndrome
Illnesses constituted by the personal, social, and cultural explanations and reactions of a given society to perceived dysfunctions or abnormalities in its members.
emic worldview
An insider or native perspective of any intercultural encounter.
enculturation
Socialization into one's primary culture as a child.
ethnicity
Cultural group's sense of identification associated with the group's common social and cultural heritage.
ethnocentrism
Strong belief that one's own cultural group is the best and that all that this group believes and teaches is truth.
ethnohistory
Knowledge of a client's country of origin and its history and ecological contexts.
etic worldview
An outsider's perspective of an intercultural encounter.
fictive
Nonblood kin.
Halal
Foods that are permissible for Muslims to eat; includes meat (that has been slaughtered during a prayer ritual), fish, fresh fruit, vegetables, eggs, milk, and cheese.
haram
Foods that are prohibited for Muslims to eat; includes non-Halal meat, animals with fangs, pork products, gelatin products, and alcohol.
hilot
The name Filipinos use for a practitioner other than medical doctors attending childbirth.
Hmongs
A culture that believes in the global causation of illness that goes beyond the mind and body of the person to forces of nature.
Hwa-Byung
A Korean culture-bound syndrome observed among middle-age, low-income women who are overwhelmed and frustrated by the burden of caregiving for their in-laws, husbands, and children.
Igbos
A culture in West Africa that greatly celebrates the birth of a son.
invisible culture
The less visible components of a culture.
kosher
The diet of the Jewish people, including avoiding meat from carnivores, pork products, and fish without scales or fins.
matrilineal
Kinship to the mother's side of the family.
naturalistic practitioners
Attribute illness to natural, impersonal, and biological forces that cause alteration in the equilibrium of the human body.
patrilineal
Kinship to the father's side of the family.
personalismo
Mexican-American term for caregivers who interact with them in personalistic manner.
personalistic practitioners
Cultural healers who believe that health and illness can be caused by active influence of an external agent, which can be human (e.g., sorcerer) or nonhuman (e.g., ghosts, evil, or deity).
phenomena
Data that can be observed in reality.
rabbi
A Jewish cleric or teacher.
Ramadan
A Muslim time of fasting during daylight hours for the 28 days of the ninth lunar month.
resiliency
The ability to cope with expected and unexpected stressors.
respeto
Spanish word for respectful.
rites of passage
Significant social markers of changes in a person's life.
Sabbath
The day God appointed to be observed as a day of rest. Jewish people refrain from using electrical appliances on the Sabbath.
shaman
A priest or conjurer among those who profess shamanism, such as the Hmongs, an Asian culture.
Sikh (Sikhism)
An Indian culture, half religious, half military; Sikh man easily identified by visible artifacts that he wears (uncut hair with wooden comb, beard, turban, cotton underwear, steel bracelet, and short sword).
simpatia
Spanish word for warm and friendly.
subcultures
Cultures that represent various ethnic, religious, and other groups with distinct characteristics from the dominant culture.
transcultural nursing
Nursing style that represents an effort by nurses from all cultural backgrounds and clinical areas to come together and define concepts that enable them to develop the knowledge and skills needed to provide culturally sensitive care.
visible culture
A culture that has easily seen components. It is important to understand that the invisible value-belief system of a particular culture is the major driving force behind visible practices.
family
Group of people related by heredity, such as parents, children, and siblings; group of interacting individuals composing a basic unit of society. Although concepts of what constitutes a family vary, the family usually has some degree of permanence, commitment, and attachment.
family as client
Nursing perspective in which the family is viewed as a unit of interacting members having attributes, functions, and goals separate from those of the individual family members; the nurse provides care to the family as a whole.
family as context
Nursing perspective in which the primary focus of care is on an individual within a family.
family as system
Nursing perspective in which both family as client and context are included.
hardiness
Combination of three personality characteristics that are thought to mediate against stress: a sense of control over life events, a commitment to meaningful activities, and an anticipation of challenge as an opportunity for growth.
reciprocity
Care recipient shows appreciation for the caregiver, which leads to a more productive and healthy relationship.
family forms
Patterns of people considered by family members to be included in the family
Erikson's eight stages of life
Theory that describes the development of identity of the self and the ego through successive stages that unfold throughout the life span.
Freud's psychoanalytic model of personality development
Five stages associated with a sequencing of sensual pleasurable zones.
Gould's development themes
Set of stages in adulthood that dismantle the protective thinking of childhood.
heteronomous (conventional) stage
The stage of moral development when children follow the rules set up by those in authority, such as their parents, teachers, clergy, or police.
Kohlberg's moral development theory
Theory that suggests a link between moral development and Piaget's cognitive development.
moral development
Advancement of moral reasoning.
temperament
Child's characteristic style of approaching and reacting to people and situations.
conventional reasoning
Moral reasoning based on his or her own personal internalization of societal and others' expectations.
modeling
Observation and learning of behavior
post conventional reasoning
Finding a balance between basic human rights and obligations and societal rules and regulations in this level
preconventional reasoning
reflections on moral reasoning based on personal gain
psychoanalytic-psychosocial development (psychoanalytic/psychosocial development)
The psychoanalytic/psychosocial theories describe human development from the perspectives of personality, thinking, and behavior
adolescence
Period of development between the onset of puberty and adulthood.
Apgar score
Rating describing a newborn's physiological status at birth and thereafter; assists with the determination of the newborn's ability to adjust to extrauterine life.
bonding
Parent's emotional tie to a child; usually develops soon after birth as a result of such close interaction.
embryo
Stage of human development from implantation of the fertilized ovum to the eighth week of intrauterine life.
estrogen
Hormonal steroid compound that promotes the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
fetus
Stage of human development from the end of the embryonic period until birth.
fontanel
Space covered by tough membranes between the bones of an infant's cranium.
hyperbilirubinemia
Greater than normal amounts of the bile pigment bilirubin in the blood.
inborn errors of metabolism
Genetic disorders caused by the absence or deficiency of a substance, usually an enzyme.
infancy
Stage of life from 1 month to 1 year of age.
lanugo
Fine hair that normally covers the fetus after the fifth month of intrauterine life and that is mostly shed by birth.
menarche
Onset of a girl's first menstruation, usually occurring between the ages of 9 and 16 years.
molding
Overlapping and shaping of the soft skull bones during birth, usually resolved during the first few days of life.
morning sickness
Pregnant woman's symptoms of nausea and vomiting related to changes in serum hormone levels.
Nägele's rule
Concept that the estimated due date for a pregnant woman can be determined by counting back 3 months from the last menstrual period and adding 7 days; this calculated due date is based on the belief that the average length of pregnancy is 9 months.
neonatal period
Stage of life from birth to 1 month of age.
object permanence
Piagetian term for the understanding that a person or object out of sight still exists.
placenta
Organ surrounding the embryo and fetus through which nutrients and other substances from the mother and waste products from the fetus pass.
prematurity
Condition in which an infant is born between 20 and 37 weeks' gestation.
prenatal care
Routine examination of a pregnant woman by an obstetrician.
preschool period
Stage of life from 3 to 5 years of age.
puberty
Developmental period of emotional and physical changes, including the development of secondary sex characteristics and the onset of menstruation and ejaculation.
school age
Period that begins when the child starts elementary school, around the age of 6 years, and that ends with the onset of puberty.
testosterone
Naturally occurring male sex hormone.
toddlerhood
Stage of life from 1 to 3 years of age.
fertilization
The penetration of the ova by a sperm
Braxton Hicks contractions
Irregular, short uterine contractions.
doula
Support person.
lactation
Process and period in which the mother produces milk for the infant.
menopause
Natural cessation of menses by the ovaries; normally occurs in women between the ages of 45 and 60.
puerperium
Period of approximately 6 weeks after childbirth during which the woman's reproductive system is in transition to the nonpregnant state.
sandwich generation
Adults caught between the responsibilities of caring for dependent children and those of caring for aging and ailing parents.
ageism
Attitude that disadvantages, separates, and stigmatizes older adults on the basis of age-related characteristics.
Alzheimer's disease
Brain disorder that causes a gradual and progressive decline in cognitive functioning: the most frequent cause of irreversible dementia; also known as senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT).
delirium
Syndrome involving impairment of memory and other cognitive abilities and characterized by clouding of consciousness.
dementia
Progressive, organic mental state characterized by chronic personality disintegration, confusion, disorientation, decreased intellectual function, and other cognitive changes, which can have a variety of causes.
geriatrics
Branch of health care dealing with the physiology and psychology of aging and with the diagnosis and treatment of illnesses affecting the older adult.
gerontic nursing
Seldom-used term that considers the nursing care of older adults to be the art and practice of nurturing, caring, and comforting rather than merely the treatment of disease.
gerontological nursing
Nursing specialty that focuses on the health care needs of the older adult. Gerontological nurses have a broad focus and assist older adults in maximizing their functional capabilities.
gerontology
Study of all aspects of the aging processes and their consequences.
nonstochastic theory
Biological theory of aging that states that the occurrence of aging changes are predetermined by mechanisms within the body.
stochastic theories
Biological theories that consider that aging is caused by random damage that accumulates over time.
reality orientation
Communication technique used to make an older adult more aware of time, place and person with the purpose of restoring a sense of reality, improving the level of awareness, promoting socialization, elevating independent functioning and minimizing confusion, disorientation, and physical regression.
reminiscence
Recalling the past.
validation therapy
Alternative approach to communication with a confused older adult which accepts the description of the time and place as stated by the confused older adult.
critical thinking
Active, organized, cognitive process used to carefully examine one's thinking and the thinking of others.
database
Information about a client's level of health, health practices, past illnesses, present illnesses, and physical examination combined to serve as the basis for the plan of care.
decision making
Process involving critical appraisal of information that results from recognition of a problem and ends with the generation, testing, and evaluation of a conclusion.
functional health patterns
Method for organizing assessment data based on the level of client function in specific areas (e.g., mobility).
problem solving
Methodical, systematic approach to explore conditions and develop solutions and that includes analysis of data, determination of causative factors, and selection of appropriate actions to reverse or eliminate the problem.
reflection
Process of thinking back or recalling an event or discovering the meaning and purpose of that event.
evidence-based knowledge
Knowledge that comes from scientific investigation or knowledge that is based on clinical expertise
prognosis
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease or condition of a client and the usual course of the disease as observed in similar situations
assessment
First step of the nursing process. Activities required in the first step are data collection, data validation, data sorting, and data documentation; the purpose is to gather information for health problem identification.
back channeling
Active listening techniques that indicate that the nurse has heard what the client says.
clinical decision making
The use of critical thinking skills throughout the nursing process to obtain relevant information about the client and to plan and provide effective care and measure the outcomes of the care provided. Clinical decision making may occur alone or in collaboration with other health care providers.
interview
Type of communication with a client that is initiated for a specific purpose and focused on a specific content area.
nursing health history
Data collected about a client's present level of wellness, changes in the client's life patterns, sociocultural role, and mental and emotional reactions to an illness.
objective data
Data relating to a client's health problem that are obtained through observation or diagnostic measurements.
open-ended questions
Inquiries aimed at obtaining a full client response and discussion between the client and the nurse.
review of systems
Systematic method for collecting data on all body systems.
standards
Measure or guide that serves as a basis for comparison when evaluating similar phenomena or substances.
subjective data
Data relating to a client's health problem that are given in the client's own words.
cue
Information that you obtain through use of the senses
data analysis
A process of reviewing available data for patterns or trends and forming conclusions about the meaning of the data.
validation
The process of comparing data with another source to confirm its accuracy
actual nursing diagnosis
Human response to health conditions/life processes that exist in an individual, family, or community.
collaborative problem
Actual or potential physiological complications that can result from disease, trauma, treatment, or diagnostic studies for which nurses intervene in collaboration with personnel of other health care disciplines.
etiology
Identification of the cause of a problem. The cause may be a direct or a contributing factor in the development of a client problem or need.
medical diagnosis
Identification of a specific disease or pathological process.
risk nursing diagnosis
Human response to health conditions/live processes that may develop in a vulnerable individual, family, or community.
wellness nursing diagnosis
Human response to levels of wellness in an individual, family, or community that have a readiness for enhancement.
clinical criteria
Objective or subjective signs and symptoms that lead to a diagnostic conclusion
diagnostic label
The name of a nursing diagnosis as approved NANDA International
related-factor
A condition or etiology identified from the client's assessment data
nursing diagnosis
Nursing direction response to a problem ; provides the basis for selection of nursing interventions for which the nurse is accountable.
expected outcome
Likely condition of a client at the end of therapy or of a disease process, including the degree of wellness and the need for continuing care, medications, support, counseling, or education.
goals
Desired results of nursing actions, set realistically by the nurse and client as part of the planning stage of the nursing process.
long-term goal
Objective that is expected to be achieved over a longer period of time, usually over weeks or months.
nursing care plan
Written guidelines of nursing care that document specific nursing diagnoses for the client and goals, interventions, and projected outcomes.
planning
Process of designing interventions to achieve the goals and outcomes of health care delivery.
scientific rationale
Reason for choosing a specific nursing action that is based on supporting literature.
short-term goal
Objective that is expected to be achieved in a short period of time, usually less than a week.
client-centered goal
A specific and measurable behavior or response that reflects a client's highest possible level of wellness and independence in function.
collaborative intervention
Therapies that require the combined knowledge, skill and expertise of multiple health care professionals.
dependent nursing intervention
Those actions that require an order from a physician or another health care professional
nurse-sensitive client outcome
Individual, family or community state behavior or perception that is measured along a continuum in response to a nursing intervention
priority setting
The order of nursing diagnoses using notations of urgency and/or importance, in order to establish a preferential order for nursing actions
independent nursing intervention
Actions that a nurse initiates without direction from a physician or other health care professional.
adverse reaction
Harmful or unintended effect of a medication, diagnostic test, or therapeutic intervention.
client adherence
Refers to the degree to which the client, and in some cases the caregiver, follows the therapeutic regimen with respect to medications, exercise, treatments, and/or diet.
counseling
Implementation method that helps the client use a problem-solving process to recognize and manage stress and that facilitates interpersonal relationships between the client and the family, significant others, or the health care team.
diagnostic reasoning
Process that enables an observer to assign meaning and to classify phenomena in clinical situations by integrating observations and critical thinking.
direct care
Treatments preformed through interaction with the client.
indirect care
Treatments performed away from the client but on behalf of the client or group of clients.
interdisciplinary care plans
Plans that represent the contributions of all disciplines caring for the client.
lifesaving measure
Implemented when a client's physiological or psychological state is threatened.
nursing intervention
Any action by a nurse that implements the nursing care plan or any specific objective of the plan.
preventive nursing actions
Interventions directed toward preventing illness and promoting health to avoid the need for secondary or tertiary health care.
standing order
Written and approved document containing rules, policies, procedures, regulations, and orders for the conduct of client care in various stipulated clinical settings.
clinical guideline
A document that guides decisions and interventions for specific health care problems or conditions
implementation
The fourth step of the nursing process, the nurse initiates the interventions that are most likely to achieve the goals and expected outcomes needed to support or improve the client's health status.
evaluation
Category of nursing behavior in which a determination is made and recorded regarding the extent to which the client's goals have been met.
functional nursing
Division of tasks in which one nurse assumes responsibility for certain tasks while another nurse assumes responsibility for others.
outcomes management
A term that encompasses managing the individual clinical outcomes of clients as a result of prescribed treatments to the formal measurement of system level performance and effectiveness.
scientific method
Codified sequence of steps used in the formulation, testing, evaluation, and reporting of scientific ideas.
performance improvement
Term interchangable with quality improvement that describes and approach to the continuous study and improvement of the processes of providing health care services to meet the needs of clients and others.
authority
Right to act in areas in which the individual has been given and accepts responsibility.
decentralized management
Process by which managers and staff become more actively involved in shaping a health care organization's identity and determining its success.
nursing
Diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems.
primary nursing
Nursing services designed to maintain continuity of care across shifts, days, or visits.
shared governance
Senior clinical staff groups are empowered to establish and maintain care standards for nursing practice on their work unit.
team nursing
A delivery of care model that has an RN as leader of the team and team members consisting of other RNs, LPN/LVNs, and assistive personnel. Team members provide direct client care to a group of clients, under the direction and coordination of the RN team leader.
total patient care
A delivery of care model where a registered nurse is responsible for all aspects of one or more clients' care. The model has a shift-based focus.
beneficence
The doing or active promotion of doing good. One of the four principles of the ethical theory of deontology.
consequentialism
Utilitarian system of ethics that proposes that the value of something is determined by its usefulness.
deontology
Study that proposes a system of ethics that defines actions as right or wrong based on their "right-making characteristics such as fidelity to promises, truthfulness, and justice" (Beauchamp and Childress, 2001).
ethics
Principles or standards that govern proper conduct as they apply to professional issues or problems.
fidelity
Quality or state of being faithful.
justice
Fairness or equity of the manner in which decisions are made; one of the principles of the ethical theory of deontology.
nonmaleficence
Duty to do no harm to another person; one of the principles of the ethical theory of deontology.
teleology
Concept that proposes the greatest good for the greatest number of people as the guiding principle for determining right action.
value
Personal belief about the worth of a given idea or behavior.
value system
Values that are related to one another (e.g., religious and cultural values can shape health values).
active listening
Listening attentively with one's whole being— mind, body, and spirit.
administrative law (also known as regulatory law)
Law created by administrative bodies such as State Boards of Nursing when they pass rules and regulations.
assault
Unlawful threatening or inflicting of harm on another.
battery
Legal term for touching of another's body without consent.
civil laws
Laws established by a nation or state for its own jurisdiction.
code of ethics
Code that defines the ethical principles by which nurses function.
common law
Law that is created by judicial decisions as opposed to law created by legislative bodies (statutory law).
criminal law
Law of crimes and their punishment.
defamation of character
Harm of the reputation of a person by libel or slander.
delegation
Process of assigning another member of the health care team aspects of client care (e.g., assigning nurse assistants to bathe a client).
felony
Crime of a serious nature that carries a penalty of imprisonment or death.
libel
Written false statement about a person that may injure that person's reputation.
living wills
Instruments by which a dying person makes wishes known to caregivers; a living will has no legal validity in most states.
malice
Spirit with which the person publishing information knows it is false and publishes it anyway or publishes it with reckless disregard as to the truth or falsity of the statement.
malpractice
Injurious or unprofessional actions that harm another.
misdemeanor
Lesser crime; penalty is usually a fine or imprisonment for less than 1 year.
negligence
Careless act of omission or commission that results in injury to another.
regulatory law (also known as administrative law)
Law created by administrative bodies such as State Boards of Nursing when they pass rules and regulations.
risk management
System of ensuring appropriate nursing care.
slander
Utterance of a false statement about another that harms that person's reputation.
statutory law
Of or related to laws enacted by a legislative branch of the government.
tort
Act that causes injury for which the injured party can bring civil action.
intentional torts
Willlful acts that violate another's rights, such as assault, battery and false imprisonment.
occurrence reports
Provides a database for further investigation in an attempt to determine deviations from the Standards of Care, corrective measures needed to prevent recurrence and to alert risk management to a potential claim situation.
privacy
Privacy is the right of clients to keep information about themselves from being disclosed.
assertiveness
Comprises respect for others, respect for yourself, self-awareness, and effective, clear and consistent communication.
channels
Means of conveying and receiving messages through visual, auditory, and tactile senses.
communication
Means by which people interact.
empathy
Ability to understand and accept another person's reality.
interpersonal communication
Exchange of information between two persons or among persons in a small group.
interpersonal variables
Factors within both the sender and receiver that influence communication.
intrapersonal communication
Communication that occurs within an individual (e.g., a person who talks with the self silently or who forms an idea in the mind).
message
Information sent or expressed by the sender in the communication process.
metacommunication
Communication that includes not only what is said but also the relationship of those involved in the interaction. It is a message that conveys the sender's attitude toward the self, the message, and the attitudes, feelings, and intentions toward the listener.
nonverbal communication
Communication using expressions, gestures, body posture, and positioning rather than words.
perceptional biases
Human tendencies that interfere with accurately perceiving and interpreting messages from others.
public communication
Interaction between one person and a large group of people.
receiver
Person to whom the message is sent during the communication process.
referent
Factor that motivates a person to communicate with another individual.
sender
Person who initiates interpersonal communication by conveying a message.
small-group communication
Interaction that occurs when a small number of persons meet together.
symbolic communication
Verbal and nonverbal symbolism used by others to convey meaning.
sympathy
Concern, sorrow, or pity felt for the client, generated by the nurse's personal identification with the client's needs.
therapeutic communication techniques
Specific responses that encourage the expression of feelings and ideas and convey the nurse's acceptance and respect.
transpersonal communication
Interaction that occurs within a person's spiritual domain.
verbal communication
Sending of messages from one individual to another or to a group of individuals through the spoken word.
affective learning
Acquisition of behaviors involved in expressing feelings in attitudes, appreciations, and values.
analogies
Comparisons made between things otherwise unalike.
cognitive learning
Acquisition of intellectual skills that encompass behaviors such as thinking, understanding, and evaluating.
compliance
Person's fulfillment of the prescribed course of treatment.
functional illiteracy
Inability to read or comprehend above a fifth-grade level.
learning
Acquisition of new knowledge and skills as a result of reinforcement, practice, and experience.
learning objective
Written statements that describe the knowledge or skill a teacher expects an individual to gain following a learning activity.
motivation
Internal impulse that causes a person to take action.
psychomotor learning
Acquisition of ability to perform motor skills.
reinforcement
Provision of a contingent response to a learner's behavior that increases the probability of the behavior recurring.
return demonstrations
Demonstrations performed by the client after he or she has first observed the teacher and then practiced the skill in mock or real situations.
self-efficacy
Term that refers to a person's perceived ability to successfully complete a task.
teaching
Implementation method used to present correct principles, procedures, and techniques of health care.
accrediting (accreditation)
Process whereby a professional association or nongovernmental body grants recognition to a school or institution for its demonstrated ability in a special area of practice or training, such as the accreditation of hospitals by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or of nursing schools by the National League for Nursing.
acuity recording
Mechanism by which entries describing client care activities are made over a 24-hour period. The activities are then translated into a rating score or acuity score that allows for a comparison of clients who vary by severity of illness.
change-of-shift report
Report that occur between two scheduled nursing work shifts. Nurses communicate information about their assigned clients to nurses working on the next shift of duty.
charting by exception
Charting methodology in which data is entered only when there is an exception from what is normal or expected; reduces time spent documenting.
DAR
A type of documentation note that includes D—data (both subjective and objective), A—action or nursing intervention, and R—response of the client (i.e., evaluation of effectiveness).
documentation
Act of authenticating events or activities by keeping written records.
flow sheets
Documents on which frequent observations or specific measurements are recorded.
focus charting
Charting methodology for structuring progress notes according to the focus of the note (e.g., symptoms and nursing diagnosis). Each note includes data, actions, and client response (DAR).
problem-oriented medical record (POMR or POR)
Method of recording data about the health status of a client that fosters a collaborative problem-solving approach by all members of the health care team.
record
Written form of communication that permanently documents information relevant to health care management.
reports
Transfer of information from the nurses on one shift to the nurses on the following shift. Report may also be given by one of the members of the nursing team to another health care provider (e.g., physician or therapist).
residents
Individual clients who reside in a long-term care facility.
SOAP
Acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, and plan, the four parts of the written account of a client's health problem in a problem-oriented record.
SOAPIE
Acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, plan, intervention, and evaluation, the six parts of the written account of a client's health problem in a problem-oriented record.
source record
Method for organizing a client's health care record by placing information in sections organized for each discipline that cares for the client.
standardized care plans
Preprinted, established guidelines that are used to care for clients who have similar health problems.
transfer reports
Verbal report exchanged between care providers when a client is moved from one nursing unit or health care setting to another. The report includes information necessary to maintain a consistent level of care from one setting to another.
PIE
Acronym for Problem-Intervention-Evaluation method of charting
referrals
Arrangements for services by another care provider
variances
Unexpected outcomes, unmet goals and interventions not specified within a critical pathway timeframe.
body image
Mental picture of one's body internally and externally.
homosexual
Sexual orientation involving erotic preference for members of one's own sex.
identity
Component of self-concept; sense of continuity and sameness; one's persisting consciousness of being oneself, separate, unique, and distinct from others.
identity confusion
Form of self-concept disturbance in which a person does not maintain a clear consciousness of a consistent and continuous self; sense of fragmentation or distortion.
role ambiguity
State in which a person has unclear role expectations and feels unable to predict the outcomes of behavior.
role conflict
State in which a person experiences incongruent or incompatible expectations within one role or between two or more simultaneously held roles.
role overload
State in which a person has more roles or more responsibilities within a role than are manageable.
role performance
Way in which an individual perceives his or her competency in carrying out significant roles.
role strain
Generalized state of frustration or anxiety produced by the stress of role conflict and ambiguity.
self-concept
Complex, dynamic integration of conscious and unconscious feelings, attitudes, and perceptions about one's identity, physical being, worth, and roles; how people perceive and define themselves.
self-esteem
Feeling of self-worth characterized by feelings of achievement, adequacy, self-confidence, and usefulness.
condom
Thin rubber sheath that fits over the penis to prevent entrance of sperm into the vagina.
confidentiality
Privacy; a nurse must maintain the confidentiality of information related to a client's health care.
contraception
Prevention of pregnancy by means of a medication, device, or method that blocks or alters one or more of the processes of reproduction in such a way that sexual union can occur without impregnation.
diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)
Groups of clients classified for purposes of measuring a hospital's delivery of care.
diaphragm
Round rubber dome that has a flexible spring around the edge.
dyspareunia
Painful intercourse for a woman.
feedback
In communication theory, information produced by a receiver and perceived by a sender that informs the sender about the receiver's reaction to the message. Feedback is a cyclical part of the process of communication that regulates and modifies the content of messages.
gay
Any person who is homosexual.
gender identity
Awareness of being male or female that develops from infancy.
gender role (sex role)
Expression of one's maleness or femaleness to both oneself and others.
heterosexual
Sexual orientation involving erotic preference for members of the opposite sex.
intercourse
Sexual relations between two individuals.
lesbian
Female with homosexual partner preference.
perimenopausal
Span of 4 to 6 years preceding menopause when menstrual cycles and blood flow may be irregular.
sexual dysfunction
Inability or difficulty in sexual function caused by physiological or psychological factors or both.
sexual health
Integration of the somatic, emotional, intellectual, and social aspects of the sexual being in ways that are positively enriching and that enhance personality, communication, and love.
sexual orientation
Clear, persistent desire of a person for one sex rather than the other.
tubal ligation
Female sterilization; involves cutting, tying, or otherwise ligating the fallopian tubes.
vaginismus
Intense contraction of the perineal and vaginal musculature that closes the vaginal introitus; only occasionally associated with painful genital conditions. Instead, it is most often a psychological response and frequently associated with rape or childhood sexual abuse.
vasectomy
Cutting and tying of the vas deferens, which carries the sperm away from the testicles.
bisexual
A person who is equally attracted to men and women
agnostic
Term used to describe individuals who believe that any ultimate reality is unknowable.
atheist
Individual who does not believe in the existence of God.
bereavement
Response to loss through death; a subjective experience that a person suffers after losing a person with whom there has been a significant relationship.
faith
More than a set of beliefs but a way of relating to the self, others, and God and integrating the past, present, and future with God as the center.
holistic
Body of thought that encourages nurses to look for factors and relations that affect the complexity of health and illness.
spiritual distress
State of being out of harmony with a system of beliefs, a supreme being, or God.
spirituality
Spiritual dimension of a person, including the relationship with humanity, nature, a system of beliefs, a supreme being, or God.
spiritual well-being
Sense of harmonious interconnectedness between self, others, nature, and an ultimate order that exists throughout and beyond time and space.
connectedness
The sense of being connected with self, with others and the environment and with God or a higher power
self-transcendence
The belief that there is a force out side of and greater than the person that is goes beyond space and time.
acceptance
The individual accepts the loss and begins to look to the future.
actual loss
Any loss of a person or object that can no longer be felt, heard, known, or experienced by the individual.
anger
The stage in which the individual resists the loss and may strike out at everyone and everything.
anticipatory grief
Grief response in which a person begins the grieving process before the actual loss.
appraisal
How people interpret the impact of the stressor on themselves, of what is happening and what they can do about it.
bargaining
An individual postpones awareness of the reality of the loss and may try to deal in a subtle or overt way as though the loss can be prevented.
denial
The stage in which the individual acts as though nothing has happened and may refuse to believe or understand that a loss has occurred.
disorganization and despair
The endless examination of how and why the loss occurred.
hope
Confident (yet uncertain) expectation of achieving a future goal.
implantation
Process involving the attachment, penetration, and embedding of the blastocyst in the lining of the uterine wall during the early stages of prenatal development.
necessary loss
Loss that is the result of the natural growth and development processes in our lives.
numbing
The response to grief as a stunned or unreal feeling. The briefest phase of mourning.
palliative care
The prevention, relief, reduction, or soothing of symptoms of disease or disorders without effecting a cure.
perceived loss
Any loss that is less tangible and uniquely defined by the grieving client, such as the loss of confidence or prestige.
postmortem care
The care given the body after death.
reorganization
The person begins to accept unaccustomed roles, acquire new skills, and build new relationships.
situational loss
Loss of a person, thing, or quality resulting from a change in a life situation, including changes related to illness, body image, environment, and death.
yearning and searching
Emotional outburst of tearful sobbing and acute distress in most persons.
autopsy
Surgical dissection of the body after death to determine the exact cause and circumstances of death or discover a pathway of a disease.
complicated (dysfunctional) grief
The grieving person has a prolonged or significantly difficult time moving forward after a loss.
disenfranchised grief
The individual's relationship to the deceased person is not socially sanctioned, cannot be openly acknowledge or publicly shared or seems of lesser significance.
grief
The emotional response to a loss, manifested in ways unique to an individual, based on personal experiences, cultural expectations and spiritual beliefs.
maturational loss
A form of necessary loss and include all normally expected life changes across the lifespan.
normal (uncomplicated) grief
Consists of the most commonly experienced feelings and behaviors in reaction to loss.
organ and tissue donation
Process of using properly harvested organs and tissues for donation to individuals in need of the tissues or organs.
spiritual integration
When an individual comes to terms with his or her life and puts life's pieces together in a way consistent with one's entire life.
acute stress disorder
Begins with the person experiencing, witnessing, or being confronted with a traumatic event and responding with intense fear, helplessness, or horror.
burnout
A syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization of others, and perceptions of reduced personal accomplishment.
coping
A person's ability and resources to manage psychological stress.
crisis
Stressful encounter that presents a change or an obstacle to attaining life goals that is perceived as insurmountable.
crisis intervention
Use of therapeutic techniques directed toward helping a client resolve a particular and immediate problem.
developmental crises
Crises that occur when a person is unable to complete the developmental tasks of a psychosocial stage and is therefore unable to continue developing.
distress
Damaging stress.
ego-defense mechanism
Unconscious behavior that protects a person from an emotional stress.
endorphin
The hormone that acts on the mind like morphine and opiates, producing a sense of well being and reducing pain.
eustress
Stress that protects health.
fight-or-flight response
The stress response that is arousal of the sympathetic nervous system.
flashbacks
Recurrent and intrusive recollections of a traumatic event.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Generalized defense response of the body to stress that consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
inference
Taking one proposition as a given and guessing that another proposition follows.
nursing process
Systematic problem-solving method by which nurses individualize care for each client. The five steps of the nursing process are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
perfusion
Passage of a fluid, such as blood, through a specific organ or an area of the body.
posttraumatic stress disorder
Stress that lasts well after the traumatizing event ends.
presence
Person-to-person encounter that conveys a closeness and sense of security.
primary appraisal
Evaluating an event for its personal meaning.
secondary appraisal
Reappraisal focusing on possible coping strategies.
situational crisis
Crisis occurring suddenly in response to a specific external event or conflict.
stress
Physiological or psychological tension that threatens homeostasis or a person's psychological equilibrium.
stressor
Any event, situation, or other stimulus encountered in a person's external or internal environment that necessitates change or adaptation by the person.
trauma
Symptoms of stress persist beyond the duration of the stressor.
alarm reaction
The first stage of the General adaption syndrome where the body reacts to a stressor.
exhaustion stage
The stage of the General Adaption syndrome where the body is no longer able to resist the effects of the stressor and when the body has depleted the energy necessary to maintain adaption.
resistance stage
The second stage of the General Adaption syndrome where the body stabilizes and responds in an opposite matter to the alarm reaction
afebrile
Without fever.
antipyretic
Of or pertaining to a substance or procedure that reduces fever.
auscultatory gap
Disappearance of sound when obtaining a blood pressure: typically occurs between the first and second Korotkoff sounds.
blood pressure (BP)
Pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries, veins, and chambers of the heart. The pressure in the aorta and the large arteries of a healthy young adult is approximately 120 mm Hg during systole and 70 mm Hg during diastole.
bradycardia
Slower than normal heart rate; heart contracts fewer than 60 times per minute.
Celsius
Denotes a temperature scale in which 0° is the freezing point of water and 100° is the boiling point of water at sea level.
concept map
Visual representation of client problems and interventions that shows their relationships to each other. Metacognitive tool that assists learners in developing a self-appraisal of their own individual thinking processes and in considering the context of nursing practice in the conceptualization of client problems.
conduction
Transfer of heat from one object to another with direct contact.
convection
Transfer of heat away by air movement.
core temperature
Temperature of deep body tissues and organs.
diaphoresis
Secretion of sweat, especially profuse secretion associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, or emotional stress.
diastolic pressure
Minimum level of blood pressure measured between contractions of the heart.
eupnea
Normal respiration that is quiet, effortless, and rhythmic.
evaporation
Transfer of heat energy when a liquid is changed to gas.
Fahrenheit
Scale for the measurement of temperature in which the boiling point of water is 212° and the freezing point is 32° at sea level.
febrile
Pertaining to or characterized by an elevated body temperature.
fever
Elevation of the hypothalamic set point so that body temperature is regulated at a higher level.
fever of unknown origin (FUO)
Refers to a fever whose cause cannot be determined.
frostbite
Traumatic effect of extreme cold on the skin and subcutaneous tissues; first manifested by distinct pallor.
heat exhaustion
Abnormal condition characterized by weakness, vertigo, nausea, muscle cramps, and loss of consciousness; caused by depletion of body fluid and electrolytes resulting from exposure to intense heat or the inability to acclimatize to heat.
heatstroke
Severe and sometimes fatal condition resulting from the failure of the temperature-regulating capacity of the body; caused by prolonged exposure to the sun or high temperatures.
hematocrit
Measure of the packed cell volume of red cells, expressed as a percentage of the total blood volume.
hospice
A system of family-centered care designed to allow clients to live and remain at home with comfort, independence, and dignity while alleviating the strains caused by terminal illness.
hyperthermia
Situation in which body temperature exceeds the set point; fever.
hypotension
Abnormal lowering of blood pressure in which pressure is inadequate for normal perfusion and oxygenation of tissues.
hypothalamus
Portion of the diencephalon of the brain that activates, controls, and integrates the peripheral autonomic nervous system, the endocrine processes, and many bodily functions such as body temperature, sleep, and appetite.
hypoxemia
Abnormal deficiency of oxygen in arterial blood.
nonshivering thermogenesis
Condition that occurs primarily in neonates; because neonates cannot shiver, a limited amount of vascular brown tissue, present at birth, is metabolized for heat production.
postural hypotension
Abnormally low blood pressure occurring when an individual assumes the standing posture; also called orthostatic hypotension.
pulse pressure
Difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures, normally 30 to 40 mm Hg.
pyrexia
Abnormal elevation of the temperature of the body above 37° C (98.6° F) because of disease; fever.
pyrogen
Any substance that causes a rise in body temperature (e.g., bacterial toxins).
radial pulse
Pulse of the radial artery palpated at the wrist over the radius. The radial pulse is the one most often taken.
radiation
Method of temperature regulation used by the body to lower body temperature.
shivering
Process used by the body to raise body temperature.
sphygmomanometer
Device for measuring the arterial blood pressure that consists of an arm or leg cuff with an air bladder connected to a tube, a bulb for pumping air into the bladder, and a gauge for indicating the amount of air pressure being exerted against the artery.
stria (striae)
Streak or linear scar that results from rapidly developing tension in the skin, commonly seen on the abdomen after pregnancy.
systolic pressure
Pressure exerted in the aorta and large arteries of a human during systolic contraction of the left ventricle; indicated during blood pressure measurement as the point when sound can first be heard during deflation of the pressure cuff.
tachycardia
Rapid heart rate ranging between 100 and 150 beats per minute.
thermoregulation
Internal control of body temperature.
vital signs
Temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure.
hypertension
Blood pressure of greater than 120-139/80-89
acromegaly
Chronic metabolic condition caused by overproduction of growth hormone and characterized by gradual, marked enlargement and elongation of bones of the face, jaw, and extremities.
adventitious sounds
Abnormal lung sounds heard with auscultation.
aneurysm
Localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel, usually caused by arteriosclerosis, hypertension, or a congenital weakness in the vessel wall.
apical impulse
Point at which the apex of the heart touches the anterior chest wall; best site for auscultation of heart sounds; also called the point of maximal impulse (PMI).
arcus senilis
Thin white ring along the margin of the iris.
atherosclerosis
Common arterial disorder characterized by yellowish plaques of cholesterol, lipids, and cellular debris in the inner layers of the walls of the large- and medium-sized arteries.
atrophied
Wasting or diminution of size or physiological activity of a part of the body caused by disease or other influences.
basal cell carcinoma
Malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a papule and enlarges peripherally, developing a central crater that erodes, crusts, and bleeds. Metastasis is rare. Primary cause is excessive exposure to the sun or to x-rays.
borborygmi
Audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis.
bronchophony
Increase in intensity and clarity of the vocal resonance that may result from an increase in the lung tissue density, such as in the consolidation of pneumonia.
bruit
Abnormal sound or murmur heard while auscultating an organ, gland, or artery.
chancre
Small open ulcer that drains serous material; found on genitalia, associated with syphilis.
cherry angiomas
Ruby red papules of the skin.
cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder; may be acute or chronic.
cirrhosis
Chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
clubbing
Bulging of the tissues at the nail base due to insufficient oxygenation at the periphery resulting from conditions such as chronic emphysema and congenital heart disease.
conjunctivitis
Highly contagious eye infection; the crusty drainage that collects on eyelid margins can easily spread from one eye to the other.
dermatitis
Inflammation of skin characterized by itching, redness, and skin lesions.
distention
Swelling of a body cavity; may be caused by fluid, gas, or a mass.
ectropion
Eversion of the eyelid that exposes the conjunctival membrane and part of the eyeball.
eczema
Superficial dermatitis of unknown cause.
entropion
Condition in which the eyelid turns inward toward the eye.
epidemiology
Study of the occurrence, distribution, and causes of disease.
erythema
Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes that is a result of dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries; sunburn is an example.
exophthalmos
Abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs.
exostosis
Abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone.
goniometer
Device that measures the precise degree of motion in a particular joint and is used mainly in clients who have a suspected reduction in joint movement. The instrument has two flexible arms with a 180-degree protractor in the center.
hepatitis
Inflammatory condition of the liver.
hernia
Protrusion of abdominal organs through the muscle wall.
hirsutism
Excessive body hair in a masculine distribution caused by heredity, hormonal dysfunction, or medication.
hydrocephalus
Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
hypertonicity
Increased muscle tone.
hypotonicity
Low muscle tone.
iatrogenic infections
Infections caused by a treatment or diagnostic procedure.
indurated
Hardened tissue, particularly skin, due to edema, inflammation, or infiltration by a tumor.
integument
Skin and its appendages: hair, nails, and sweat and sebaceous glands.
invasive
Referring to procedures that involve puncture, incision, or insertion of a foreign object, such as a needle or catheter, into the body.
jaundice
Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera, caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
kyphosis
Exaggeration of the posterior curvature of the thoracic spine.
leukoplakia
Thick, raised, pearly-white patch of precancerous tissue found on the lips, buccal mucosa, penis, or vulva.
localized
With regard to infections, a type of infection in which the infectious process is limited to a particular area, such as a wound infection.
lordosis
Increased lumbar curvature.
melanoma
Group of malignant neoplasms, primarily of the skin, that are composed of melanocytes; common in fair-skinned people having light-colored eyes and in persons who have had a sunburn; any black or brown spot having an irregular border, pigment appearing to radiate beyond that border, or a red, black, and blue coloration observable on close examination.
metastasize
To spread.
microorganisms
Any microscopic entity capable of carrying on living processes, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
murmur
Low-pitched fluttering or humming sound, such as a heart murmur.
nystagmus
Involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes; the oscillations may be horizontal, vertical, rotary, or mixed.
occlusion
Blockage in a canal, vessel, or passage of the body.
ophthalmoscope
Instrument used to illuminate the structures of the eye for the examination of the fundus, which includes the retina, choroid, optic nerve disc, macula, fovea centralis, and retinal vessels.
otoscope
Instrument with a special ear speculum used to examine the deeper structures of the external and middle ear.
ototoxicity
Referring to the characteristic of any drug or substance that has a harmful effect on the eighth cranial nerve or the organs of hearing and balance.
pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Papanicolaou (Pap) test
Painless screening test for cervical cancer; specimens of squamous and columnar cells of the cervix are taken.
peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum produced by bacteria or irritating substances introduced into the abdominal cavity by a penetrating wound or perforation of an organ in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or the reproductive tract.
PERRLA
Acronym for pupils equal, round, reactive to light, accommodative; the acronym is recorded in the physical examination if eye and pupil assessments are normal.
petechiae
Tiny purple or red spots that appear on the skin as minute hemorrhages within dermal layers.
phagocytosis
Process by which certain cells, such as macrophages, engulf and dispose of microorganisms.
pigmentation
Organic coloring material, such as melanin, that gives color to the skin.
point of maximal impulse (PMI)
Anatomical point along the fourth to fifth intercostal space at the midclavicular line where the heartbeat can most easily be palpated through the chest wall.
ptosis
Abnormal condition of one or both upper eyelids in which the eyelid droops; caused by weakness of the levator muscle or paralysis of the third cranial nerve.
scoliosis
Lateral spinal curvature.
senile keratosis
Slowly developing, localized thickening of the outer layers of the skin as a result of chronic, excessive exposure to the sun; commonly develops in older adults.
stenosis
Abnormal condition characterized by the constriction or narrowing of an opening or passageway in a body structure.
syncope
Brief lapse in consciousness caused by transient cerebral hypoxia.
systemic
Of or pertaining to the whole body rather than to a localized area.
tactile fremitus
Tremulous vibration of the chest wall during breathing that is palpable on physical examination.
thrill
Continuous palpable sensation, like the purring of a cat.
turgor
Normal resiliency of the skin caused by the outward pressure of the cells and interstitial fluid.
varicosities
Superficial veins that become dilated, for example, varicose veins on the lag or esophageal varicosities along the surface of the esophagus
ventricular gallop
Abnormal low-pitched extra heart sound (S3) heard in early diastole.
vocal fremitus
Vibrations created by sound waves that can be palpated externally.
whispered pectoriloquy
Transmission of a whisper through the pulmonary structures so that it is heard as normal audible speech on auscultation.
aphasia
Loss of ability to comprehend language or communicate
benign breast disease (fibrocystic)
Condition characterized by lumpy, sore breasts and sometimes nipple discharge. Symptoms are more apparent before the menstrual period.
capillary refill
The time it takes for a nail bed to return to its usual color after the blood flow has been momentarily occluded—is an indicator of peripheral circulation.
squamous cell carcinoma
Skin cancer that develops on outer layers of sun damaged skin; may travel to lymph nodes.
aerobic
Of or pertaining to the presence of air or oxygen; requiring oxygen for the maintenance of life.
anaerobic
Absence of oxygen.
asepsis
Absence of germs or microorganisms.
bactericidal
Destructive to bacteria.
bacteriostasis
State in which the development or reproduction of bacteria is suspended.
broad-spectrum antibiotics
Antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of infectious microorganisms.
carriers
Animals or persons who harbor and spread a disease-causing organism but who do not become ill.
communicable disease
Any disease that can be transmitted from one person or animal to another by direct or indirect contact or by vectors.
disinfection
Process of killing pathogenic organisms.
endogenous infection
Infection produced within a cell or organism.
exogenous infection
Infection originating outside an organ or part.
hand hygiene
CDC-recommended approaches for cleansing of the hands involving the use of an instant alcohol hand antiseptic before and after providing client care, hand washing with soap and water when hands are visibly soiled, or performing a surgical scrub.
hand washing
Vigorous, brief rubbing together of all surfaces of hands lathered in soap, followed by rinsing under a stream of water.
immunocompromised
Abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inadequate.
inflammatory response
Protective vascular and cellular reaction that neutralizes pathogens and repairs body cells.
leukocytosis
Abnormal increase in the number of circulating white blood cells.
medical asepsis
Procedures used to reduce and prevent the spread of microorganisms; also known as clean technique.
necrotic
Of or pertaining to the death of tissue in response to disease or injury.
normal flora
Microorganisms that live on or within a body to compete with disease-producing microorganisms and provide a natural immunity against certain infections.
pathogenicity
Ability of a pathogenic agent to produce disease.
sterile field
Specified area, such as within a tray or on a sterile towel, that is considered free of microorganisms.
suprainfection
Secondary infection usually caused by an opportunistic pathogen.
surgical asepsis
Procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object or area; also known as sterile technique.
susceptibility
Condition of being vulnerable to a disease or disorder.
vector
Carrier, especially one that transmits disease.
virulence
The ability to produce disease.
health care-associated infections
A client develops an infection that was not present or incubating at the time of admission.
absorption
Passage of substances across and into tissues (e.g., intestinal and parenteral absorption).
adverse effects
A severe response to medication. For example, a client may become comatose when a drug is ingested.
anaphylactic reactions
Reactions characterized by sudden constriction of bronchiolar muscles, edema of the pharynx and larynx, and severe wheezing and shortness of breath.
biotransformation
Change that occurs under the influence of enzymes that detoxify, degrade, and remove biologically active chemicals.
buccal
Of or pertaining to the inside of the cheek or the gum next to the cheek.
client-centered problems
What nursing leaders and educators revised their curricula to reflect.
concentration (concentrate)
Substance, particularly a liquid, that has been strengthened and reduced in volume through evaporation or other means.
idiosyncratic reaction
Individual sensitivities to drug effects; caused by inherited or other bodily constitution factors.
infusion
Introduction of a substance such as a fluid, drug, electrolyte, or nutrient directly into a vein by means of gravity flow.
inhalation
To breathe in or draw in with the breath.
injection
Act of forcing a liquid into the body by means of a needle and syringe.
instillation
Procedure in which a fluid is slowly introduced into a cavity or passage of the body (e.g., rectum) and allowed to remain for a specific length of time before being withdrawn or drained.
integrative medical programs
Programs that allow health care consumers to be treated by a team of providers that consists of both allopathic and complementary practitioners.
intraarticular
Within a joint.
intracardiac
Within the myocardium.
intradermal (ID)
Within the dermis of the skin.
intramuscular (IM)
Tissue within the interior of a muscle.
intraocular
Eye medication delivery involving inserting a medication, similar to a contact lens, into a client's eye.
intravenous (IV)
Pertaining to the inside of a vein.
irrigation
Process of washing out a body cavity or wounded area with a stream of fluid.
medication allergy
Severe or mild reaction to medication.
medication error
Any event that could cause or lead to a client receiving inappropriate medication therapy or failing to receive appropriate medication therapy.
meridians
Channels of energy running in regular patterns through the body and over its surface.
metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
Inhaler designed to produce local effects such as bronchodilatation.
metric system
Decimal system of measurement based on the meter (39.37 inches) as the unit of length; on the gram (15.432 grains) as the unit of weight or mass; and, as a derived unit, on the liter (0.908 U.S. dry quart or 1.0567 U.S. liquid quart) as the unit of volume.
narcotic
Drug substance, either derived from opium or produced synthetically, that alters perception of pain and that with repeated use may result in physical and psychological dependence.
ophthalmic
Medications for eye conditions such as glaucoma.
parenteral administration
Injecting a medication into body tissues.
peak concentration
Highest serum concentration.
prescriptions
Written by the prescriber for clients who are to take medications outside the hospital.
serum half-life
Time needed for excretion processes to lower the serum drug concentration by half.
side effects
Any reaction or consequence that results from medication or therapy.
subcutaneous (Sub-Q)
Injection into tissues just below the dermis of the skin.
sublingual
Route of medication administration in which the medication is placed underneath the client's tongue.
synergistic effect
When two drugs act synergistically, the effect of the two drugs combined is greater than the effect that would be expected if the individual effects of the two drugs acting alone were added together.
therapeutic effects
Desired benefits of a medication, treatment, or procedure.
toxic effects
Resulting from an excess amount of medication in a client's blood, these effects may be caused by the excessive use of medication, overdose, impaired excretion, or idiosyncratic reaction to the medication itself.
verbal order
Physician's order given to the nurse, usually over the telephone.
medication interaction
One medication alters the action of another.
medication reconciliation
Comparison of two medication lists to ensure that the nurse is aware of all medications prescribed for a client
acupoints
Holes through which qi can be influenced by the insertion of needles.
acupuncture
Traditional Chinese method of producing analgesia or altering the function of a body system by the insertion of needles.
allopathic medicine
System of medical therapy in which a disease or an abnormal condition is treated by creating an environment that is antagonistic to the disease or condition.
alternative therapies
Any of the systems of medical diagnosis and treatment differing in technique from that of the allopathic practitioner's use of drugs and surgery to treat disease and injury.
chiropractic therapy
System of therapy based on the theory that the state of a person's health is determined in general by the condition of his or her nervous system.
complementary therapies
Therapies used in addition to conventional treatment recommended by the person's health care provider.
creative visualization
Form of self-directed imagery that is based on the principal of mind-body connectivity.
crutch gait
Gait assumed by a person on crutches by alternately bearing weight on one or both legs and on the crutches.
energy flow
Term used in Therapeutic Touch therapy referring to the symmetrical and rhythmical flow of energy through the body.
herbal therapy
Use of plant species as medicine.
imagery
Visualization techniques that make use of the conscious mind to create mental images to evoke physical changes in the body.
passive relaxation
Process that involves teaching the individual to relax individual muscle groups passively.
progressive relaxation
Exercise that helps to teach the individual how to effectively rest and reduce tension in the body.
qi
Vital energy of the human body.
stress response
Response evoked by stressful situations that people are exposed to in everyday life.
therapeutic touch
Use of the hands to provide comfort to the client; touch can communicate caring and thus help clients relax.
yin and yang
Symbols that represent the opposing yet complementary phenomena that exist in a state of dynamic equilibrium.
meditation
Any activity that limits stimulus input by directing attention to a single unchanging or repetitive stimulus.
relaxation response
The state of generalized decreased cognitive, physiological, and/or behavioral arousal.
antagonistic muscles
Group of muscles that work together to bring about movement at a joint.
antigravity muscles
Muscles involved with joint stabilization. These muscles continually oppose the effect of gravity on the body and permit a person to maintain an upright or sitting posture.
center of gravity
Midpoint or center of the weight of a body or object.
foot board
Board placed perpendicular to the mattress and parallel to and touching the plantar surface of the client's foot to maintain dorsiflexion of the feet.
proprioception
Sensation achieved through stimuli from within the body regarding spatial position and muscular activity.
synergistic muscles
Muscles that contract together to accomplish the same movement.
air pollution
Contamination of the environmental atmosphere with substances known as pollutants, which are not normally found in the air.
Ambularm
Safety device that alerts health care personnel that a client is attempting to get up. Provides an alternative to restraints.
aura
Sensation, as of light or warmth, that may precede an attack of migraine or epileptic seizure.
bioterrorism
The use of biological agents to create fear and threat.
carbon monoxide (CO)
Colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by the combustion of carbon or organic fuels.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Federal agency responsible for the enforcement of federal regulations regarding the manufacture and distribution of food, drugs, and cosmetics to ensure protection against the sale of impure or dangerous substances.
food poisoning
Toxic processes resulting from the ingestion of a food contaminated by toxic substances or by bacteria containing toxins.
immunization
Process by which resistance to an infectious disease is produced or augmented. Immunity is acquired after the oral administration or injection of an antigen, which causes production of an antibody within the body.
individuation
Process whereby an individual looks to gain an understanding of the self as distinct yet also in relationship with others.
land pollution
Contamination of soil by improper disposal of radioactive or bioactive waste products.
noise pollution
Noise level in an environment at the level that it becomes uncomfortable to the inhabitants.
poison
Any substance that impairs health or destroys life when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the body in relatively small amounts.
pollutant
Harmful chemical or waste material discharged into the water or atmosphere.
relative humidity
Amount of moisture in the air as compared with the maximum amount that the air could contain at the same temperature.
restraint
Device to aid in the immobilization of a client or a client's extremity.
seizure
Brief, temporary malfunctions of nerve cells in the brain may result in seizure activity. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure is characterized by loss of consciousness, tonicity (rigidity), and clonicity (jerking).
seizure precautions
Measures that protect the client from injury during a seizure.
status epilepticus
Medical emergency whereby a person has continual seizures without interruption.
water pollution
Contamination of lakes, rivers, and streams by industrial pollutants.
bed check
Alarm system that indicates when a client has exited their bed; the alarm sounds when the pressure is relieved from the Sensormat in their bed.
acne
Inflammatory papulopustular skin eruption, usually occurring on the face, neck, shoulders, and upper back.
apocrine gland
One of the large, deep exocrine glands located in the axillary, anal, genital, and mammary areas of the body; secretes sweat that has a strong odor.
buccal glands
Found in the mucosa lining of cheeks and mouth, they secrete saliva to maintain the hygiene and comfort of oral tissues.
complete bed bath
Bath given to clients who are totally dependent and require total hygiene care.
cuticle
Fold of skin that hides the root of the nail.
dermis
Layer of skin just below the epidermis that contains blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves and nerve endings, glands, and hair follicles.
eccrine
Two types of sweat glands; eccrine glands are present throughout the dermal layer of the skin and promote cooling by evaporation of their secretions.
edentulous
Toothless.
effleurage
Long, slow, gliding strokes of massage.
enucleation
Removal of an eyeball as a result of tumor growth, severe infection, or eye trauma.
epidermis
Superficial avascular layers of the skin made up of an outer, dead, cornified portion of cells and a deeper, living, cellular portion.
gingivitis
Inflammatory condition in which the gums are red, swollen, and bleeding.
halitosis
Offensive breath resulting from poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infection, ingestion of certain foods, or systemic disease.
lunula
Whitish area at the base of the nail bed.
mastication
Chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva.
neuropathy
Abnormal condition characterized by inflammation and degeneration of peripheral nerves that alter sensory or motor function.
ophthalmologist
Medical doctor whose practice is limited to diseases, conditions, and trauma to the eyes. An ophthalmologist also prescribes corrective lenses for clients whose visual acuity is impaired.
optometrist
Medical doctor whose practice is limited to primary eye care.
partial bed bath
Bath in which body parts that might cause the client discomfort if left unbathed (i.e., face, hands, axillary areas, back, and perineum) are washed while the client remains in bed.
perineal care
Cleansing procedure prescribed for the genital and anal areas as part of the daily bath or after various obstetrical and gynecological procedures.
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
Infectious diseases transmitted to any part of the body through contact with body fluids during sexual activities.
afterload
Resistance to ventricular ejection.
aldosterone
Substance released by the adrenal cortex in response to increased plasma potassium levels or as a part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism to counteract hypovolemia.
angina pectoris
Episodic chest pain caused most often by myocardial anoxia as a result of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Pain radiates down the inner aspect of the left arm and is often accompanied by feeling of suffocation and impending death.
bronchoscopy
Visual examination of the tracheal and bronchial tree using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope.
cardiac index (CI)
Adequacy of the cardiac output of an individual.
cardiopulmonary rehabilitation
Process of actively assisting the cardiopulmonary client to achieve and maintain an optimal level of health through controlled physical exercise, nutritional counseling, relaxation and stress management techniques, prescribed medication, oxygen therapy, and adherence to the rehabilitation program.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Basic emergency procedures for life support consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac massage.
chest tube
Catheter inserted through the thorax into the chest cavity for removing air or fluid; used after chest or heart surgery or pneumothorax.
diaphragmatic breathing
Respiration in which the abdomen moves out while the diaphragm descends on inspiration.
dyspnea
Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing that may be caused by certain heart or lung conditions or strenuous exercise.
electrocardiogram (ECG)
Graphic record of the electrical activity of the myocardium.
electrolyte
Element or compound that, when melted or dissolved in water or another solvent, dissociates into ions and is able to carry an electrical current.
extracellular fluids
Portion of body fluids composed of interstitial fluid and blood plasma.
filtration
Process by which water and diffusible substances move together in response to fluid pressure.
hematemesis
Vomiting of blood; indicates upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
hemoptysis
Coughing of blood from the respiratory tract.
hemothorax
Accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity between the parietal and visceral pleurae.
humidification
Process of adding water to gas.
hyperventilation
Respiratory rate in excess of that required to maintain normal carbon dioxide levels in the body tissues.
hypoventilation
Reduction in the volume of air that enters the lung for gas exchange; oxygen exchange insufficient to meet metabolic demands of the body.
hypoxia
Inadequate cellular oxygenation that may result from a deficiency in the delivery or use of oxygen at the cellular level.
incentive spirometry
Method of encouraging voluntary deep breathing by providing visual feedback to clients of the inspiratory volume they have achieved.
myocardial infarction
Necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by obstruction in a coronary artery.
myocardial ischemia
Cardiac condition that results when the supply of blood to the myocardium from the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the organ.
nasal cannula
Device for delivering oxygen by way of two small tubes that are inserted into the nares.
nebulization
Process of adding moisture to inspired air by the addition of water droplets.
normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
Wave pattern on an electrocardiogram that indicates normal conduction of an electrical impulse through the myocardium.
peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
Maximal flow rate, measured in liters, that can be generated during a forced expiratory maneuver.
pneumothorax
Collection of air or gas in the pleural space.
postural drainage
Use of positioning along with percussion and vibration to drain secretions from specific segments of the lungs and bronchi into the trachea.
preload
Volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole, immediately before ventricular contraction.
pursed-lip breathing
Deep inspiration through the nose and mouth, not using pursed lips, followed by prolonged expiration through pursed lips.
thoracentesis
Surgical perforation of the chest wall and pleural space with a needle for the aspiration of fluid or to obtain a specimen for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
ventricular fibrillation
A life-threatening rhythm in which there is no ventricular filling and no cardiac output. This dysrhythmia requires immediate intervention.
ventricular tachycardia
A life-threatening dysrhythmia because of the decreased cardiac output and the potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation.
wheezing
Adventitious lung sound caused by a severely narrowed bronchus.
expiration
The act of exhalation or emptying the air from the lungs.
inspiration
The act of breathing in, or filling the lungs with air
active transport
Movement of materials across the cell membrane by means of chemical activity that allows the cell to admit larger molecules than would otherwise be possible.
angiotensin
Substance produced by renin that causes some vasoconstriction.
anion gap
Difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions: determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions.
anions
Negatively charged electrolytes.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Substance stored in the posterior pituitary gland that is released in response to changes in blood osmolarity.
arterial blood gas
The oxygen and carbon dioxide content of arterial blood, measured by various methods to assess the adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation and the acid-base status of the body.
autologous transfusion
Transfusion procedure in which blood is removed from a donor and stored for a time before it is returned to the donor's circulation.
buffer
Substance or group of substances that can absorb or release hydrogen ions to correct an acid-base imbalance.
climacteric
Physiological developmental change that occurs in the male reproductive system between the ages of 45 and 60.
colloid osmotic pressure
Pressure that tends to keep fluid in the intravascular compartment.
colloids
Blood and blood components.
concentration gradient
Difference between two concentrations.
crystalloids
Intravenous (IV) fluid and electrolyte therapy.