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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the three phases of a typical cough?
1) initial inspiratory phase, 2) glottic closure/diaphragmatic relaxation/abdominal and IC muscle contraction
3) expulsive cough phase where airflow rates in trachea approach speed of sound
t/f... the origin of cough is unique to vagally innervated structures
true
t/f... cough does not result from stimulation to airways distal to the segmental bronchi
true
where are cough receptors most numerous?
carina and points of bifurcation of bronchial tree
what are the main mediators of cough?
rapidly adapting receptors (RARs)
where is the cough centre?
medulla oblongata
which receptors cause direct inhibition of cough?
unmyelinated C fibre receptors
what is the inheritance of cystic fibrosis?
autosomal recessive
what is the carrier rate for CF in northern Europeans?
1 in 22
what is the most common mutation causing CF?
delta F508
what is the cause of male infertility in CF?
congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens
in what percentage of CF patients is pancreatic sufficiency preserved?
10-15%
which bone of the face is not fixed?
mandible
which bones of the face are not paired?
frontal, mandible
what type of joint is the temperomandibular joint?
synovial condylar
name the muscles of mastication
temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid, medial pterygoid
which muscle of mastication retracts the jaw?
temporalis
which muscles of mastication elevate the jaw?
temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid
which muscle depresses the jaw?
lateral pterygoid
what innervates the muscles of mastication?
V3
which muscle depresses and protracts the jaw?
lateral pterygoid
which muscle elevates and protracts the jaw?
medial pterygoid
which muscle of mastication attaches to the inner mandible?
medial pterygoid
which muscle of mastication attaches to the outer mandible?
masseter
which muscle of mastication attaches to the coronoid process of the mandible?
temporalis
where does the lateral pterygoid insert?
neck/head of mandible and articular disc of TMJ
what is the action of the masster?
elevation of the jaw
what innervates the muscles of facial expression?
VII
what do the auricular muscles do?
ear movements
which muscle produces horizontal forehead wrinkles?
frontalis
which muscle produces vertical forehead wrinkles?
corrugator supercilli
what are the two parts of orbicularis oculi?
orbital and palpebral
what is the action of frontalis?
horizontal forehead wrinkles and eyebrow raise
which muscle closes the mouth and positions the lips?
orbicularis oris
which muscles elevate the lip?
levator labii superior, zygomatic minor
what does levator labii superior alaeque nasi do?
elevates lip, dilates nose
which muscle depresses the lip?
depressor labii inferior
which muscles elevate the angle?
risorius, levator anguli oris, zygomatic major
what does mentalis do?
chin-lip up
which muscle brings the cheeks together?
buccinator
what does platysma do?
lowers jaw-lip, tenses neck
which muscle depresses the angle?
depressor anguli oris
where is the geniohyoid?
from mandible to hyoid, deep to mylohyoid
which suprahyoid is innervated by C1 through XII?
geniohyoid
which suprahyoids are innercated by VII?
posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid
which suprahyoids are innervated by V3?
mylohyoid and anterior belly of digastric
which vein does omohyoid traverse?
internal jugular vein
which infrahyoid is innervated by C1 through hypoglossal?
thyrohyoid
which are the superficial infrahyoids?
sternohyoid and omohyoid
what are the deep infrahyoids?
sternothyroid and thyrohyoid
what innervates the infrahyoids?
Ci-3 (except thyrohyoid - C1 through XII)
where does the common carotid artery bifurcate?
upper thyroid cartilage
what are the branches of the external carotid artery?
superior thyroid, lingual, facial, maxillary, superficial temporal
t/f... the facial vein is tortuous
false, the facial branch of the ext carotid artery is tortuous but not the vein
which veins drain into the internal jugular vein?
lingual, superior thyroid, paryngeal, ant/ext jugular, facial, retromandibular, maxillary, superficial temporal
where are the deep cervical lymph nodes?
around the internal jugular vein
what are the motor branches of the facial nerve?
temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical (ten zebras bit my cheeks)
what are the two parts of an exocrine gland?
endpiece and duct
t/f... composition of primary fluid secreted by endpiece of exocrine gland is dependent on the flow rate
false, the composition is constant irrespective of flow rate
where does primary fluid undergo secondary modification?
in the duct
what are the major tissues affected in CF?
sweat ducts, intestine, lungs, epididymis
t/f... tissues spared in CF have calcium activated Cl- transport
true
what activates the chloride channels affected in CF?
cAMP (via protein kinase A)
what is the inheritance of cystic fibrosis?
autosomal recessive
what is the prevalence of CF?
1 in 2000-2500
what is the prevalence of CF carriers?
1 in 20-25
which chromosome contains the cystic fibrosis gene?
chromosome 7 (7q31)
what is the commonest mutation in CF?
deltaF508
what class of CFTR mutation is deltaF508?
class 2 and 3
t/f... CF is associated with an increase in ASL volume
false, there is reduced ASL volume
which tests are carried out at birth to screen for CF?
IRT and DNA
what percentage of CF cases are missed by screening?
10%
what is the carrier risk of an unaffected sibling of somoeone with CF?
2/3
what is the incidence of CF in the Asian population?
1 in 90 000
what is a quick calculation for carrier frequency?
2 x sqrt(incidence)
what is the protein product of the affected gene in cystic fibrosis?
cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)
where is CFTR located in cells?
apical membrane of epithelial cells
t/f... severe mutations correlate with pancreatic insufficiency
true
t/f... severe mutations correlate with severity of pulmonary disease
false
what causes male infertility in CF?
congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens
t/f... diagnosis of CF is ruled out by normal mewborn screening
false
what is the risk of a CF offspring if one partner is a known carrier?
1/400
what is the stimulus based model of stress?
stress is external to the person, who experiences a reaction to the stress
what is the response based model of stress?
focus on the physiological, psychological or behavioural response of the person to stress
what is the transactional model of stress?
regards the stress process as a transaction between the environment and the person
what are the effects of chronic allostatic stress on the brain?
atrophy of hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypertrophy of amygdala
what is alexithymia?
inability to recognise feelings, inability to describe feelings, externally oriented thinking