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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what type of cells line the alveoli?
type I alveolar cells
what is the thickness of the barrier to diffusion between air and blood?
0.2 microns
what is the name for the tissue between adjacent alveoli?
interalveolar septum
which are larger, type I or II alveolar cells?
type I
where do type II alveolar cells rest?
where the interalveolar septa meet
what type of cells line the alveoli?
type I alveolar cells
what is the thickness of the barrier to diffusion between air and blood?
0.2 microns
what is the name for the tissue between adjacent alveoli?
interalveolar septum
which are smaller, type I or II alveolar cells?
type II
where do type II alveolar cells rest?
where the interalveolar septa meet
t/f... type II cells can divide and differentiate to replace type I cells
true
what percentage of the alveolar area is comprised of type II alveolar cells?
3%
what structure allows ventilation to bypass a blocked alveolar duct?
interalveolar pores of Kohn
t/f... smooth muscle cells are found in the interalveolar interstitium
false, fibroblast-like cells and myofibroblasts but not smooth muscle cells are found in the interalveolar interstitium
which structures make up the pulmonary acinus?
respoiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
what is asbestosis?
diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis resulting from inhalation of large doses of asbestos fibres
what are the most dangerous forms of asbestos?
crocidolite and amosite
what is the least dangerous form of asbestos?
chrysolite
t/f... hilar lymphadenopathy is a feature of asbestosis
false, it is a common sign in sarcoidosis
what is the size of the most dangerous inhaled particles?
1-5 microns
what are the three ways for particles to be cleared from the airways?
nasal clearance, tracheobronchial clearance (mucociliary raft), alveolar clearance (by alveolar macrophages)
what percentage of cells in the lungs are inflammatory cells?
less than 10%
what type of cell accounts for over 90% of inflammatory cells in the lungs?
macrophages
which macrophage derived cytokines are chemotactic for neutrophils?
IL-8 and LTB4
what shifts the oxygen dissociation curve to the right?
increases in temp, H+ concentration, PCO2 and 2,3-DPG concentration in RBCs
what is the O2 saturation of Hb in normal arterial blood?
97.5%
what is the O2 saturation of Hb in mixed venous blood?
75%
t/f... CO has a greater affinity for Hb than O2
true
what catalyses the reaction between CO2 and water?
carbonic anhydrase
What is the FIO2 of room air?
0.21
what is the normal range for PaCO2?
35-45 mmHg
what is the normal range of PaO2?
90-100 mmHg
where is the vallecula?
anterior to the epiglottis
where are the palatine tonsils located?
between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches
what is the sensory supply to the nasopharynx?
V2
what is the sensory supply to the oropharynx?
IX
what is the sensory supply to the laryngopharynx?
X
which part of the pharynx receives sensory innervation from the maxillary nerve?
nasopharynx
which part of the pharynx receives sensory innervation from glossopharyngeal?
oropharynx
which part of the pharynx receives sensory innervation from vagus?
laryngopharynx
what is the parasympathetic supply to the nasopharynx?
VII
what is the parasympathetic supply to the oropharynx?
IX
what is the parasympathetic supply to the laryngopharynx?
vagus
which part of the pharynx receives parasympathetic supply via the facial nerve?
nasopharynx
which part of the pharynx receives parasympathetic innervation from the glossopharyngeal nerve?
oropharynx
which part of the pharynx receives parasympathetic supply via the vagus?
laryngopharynx
which pharyngeal muscle is innervated by IX?
stylopharyngeus
what is the parasympathetic supply to the laryngopharynx?
vagus
which part of the pharynx receives parasympathetic supply via the facial nerve?
nasopharynx
which part of the pharynx receives parasympathetic innervation from the glossopharyngeal nerve?
oropharynx
which part of the pharynx receives parasympathetic supply via the vagus?
laryngopharynx
which pharyngeal muscle is innervated by IX?
stylopharyngeus
what muscles make up the inferior constrictor?
thyropharyngeus and cricopharyngeus
which constrictor goes from the hyoid bone to the pharyngeal raphe?
middle constrictor
where is the superior constrictor?
pterygomandibular raphe to pharyngeal raphe
name the levators of the pharynx
palatopharyngeus, stylopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus
where is the larynx?
C3-6
what is the name for the space between the vestibular folds?
rima vestibuli
what colour are the vocal folds?
white
what type of epithelium lines the larynx?
columnar and squamous
what muscle abducts the vocal cords?
posterior cricoarytenoideus
which muscle adducts the vocal cords?
lateral cricoarytenoideus
what is the sensory supply to the vocal folds?
SLX
which muscle of the larynx is innervated by SLX?
cricothyroideus
what is the action of thyroarytenoideus?
relaxes vocal cords
which laryngeal muscle is active during forced respiration?
posterior cricoarytenoideus
what determines the pitch of phonation?
length of vocal cords
in airways obstruction, what happens to FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC?
FEV1 decreased (more than FVC)
FVC decreased
FEV1/FVC decreased
in lung restriction, what happens to FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC?
FEV1 decreased
FVC decreased (more than FEV1)
FEV1/FVC normal or increased
what happens to total lung capacity in obstruction?
increased
in obstruction, what increases more, RV or FRC?
RV
what is the definition of restriction?
TLC<80%
how is oxygen transported through the smaller airways?
diffusion
how is oxygen transported through the major airways?
convection
what is the most important site for a diffusion impairment?
across membrane
what are the mediators of matrix degradation?
matrix metalloproteinases
how many members are in the gene family of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)?
4
who is mainly affected by usual interstitial pneumonia?
middle aged adults
t/f... the prognosis for desquamative interstitial pneumonia is better than for usual interstitial pneumonia
true
what is the mortality from desquamative interstitial pneumonia?
30%
what type of pneumonia involves lymphocytes, plasma cells and type II hyperplasia?
non-specific interstitial pneumonia
what is the FEV1/FVC in interstitial lung disease?
normal or high
t/f... reduced compliance is a feature of interstitial lung disease
true
what are the pathological features of sarcoidosis?
mononuclear cell alveolitis, non-caseating granulomas, interstitial fibrosis
what are some causes of alveolar haemorrhage?
idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis, Goodpasture's syndrome, SLE, Wegener's gramulomatosis, vasculitis associated with connective tissue disorders
what are the characteristic symptoms of ILD?
dry cough and dyspnoea
what is base excess?
calculation of base required to bring the measured pH back to 7.4 after correcting the PCO2 to 40 mmHg
what is occupational lung disease?
an abnormality of the lower respiratory system resulting from work place exposure to an offending substance/s
what is the latency period for mesothelioma?
up to 30 years
t/f... mesothelioma requires a large amount of exposure
false, small amount is sufficient
t/f... asbestosis requires a large amount of exposure
true