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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ALLELE
each of two forms of a gene located at the same place on the autosomes
AUTOSOMES
the 22 matching chromosome pairs in each human cell
BEHAVIORAL GENETICS
a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in human traits and abilities
CANALIZATION
the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
CARRIER
a heterozygous individual who can pass a recessive gene to his or her children
CHROMOSOMES
rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that store and transmit genetic information
COLLECTIVST SOCIETIES
societies i which people define themselves as part of a group and stress group over individual goals
CONCORDANCE RATE
the percentage of instances in which both members of a twin pair show a trait when it is present in one pair member, used to study the contribution of heredity to emotional and behavior disorders
CROSSING OVER
during meiosis, the exchange of genes between chromosomes next to each other
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
long, double-stranded molecules that make up chromosomes
DOMINANT-RECESSIVE INHERITANCE
a pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one allele is apparent
EPIGENESIS
development of the individual resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredith and all levels of the environment
EXTENDED-FAMILY HOUSEHOLD
a household in which parent and child live with one or more adult relatives
FRATERNAL, OR DIZYGOTIC TWINS
twins resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova. they are genetically no more alike than ordinary siblings.
GAMETES
human sperm and ova, which contain half as many chromosomes as regular body cells
GENE
a segment of a dna molecule that contains hereditary instructions
GENETIC COUNSELING
a communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals
GENETIC-ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATION
the idea that heredity influences the environments to which individuals are exposed
GENETIC IMPRINTING
a pattern of inheritance in which alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one pair member is activated, regardless of its makeup
GENOTYPE
an individual's genetic makeup
HERITABILITY ESTIMATE
a statistic that measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
HETEROZYGOUS
having two different alleles at the same place on a pair of chromosomes.
HOMOZYGOUS
having two identical alleles at the same place on a pair of chromosomes
IDENTICAL, OR MONOZYGOTIC TWINS
twins that result when a zygote, during the early stages of cell duplication, divides in tow. they have the same genetic makeup
INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two.
INDIVIDUALISTIC SOCIETIES
societies in which people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs.
KINSHIP STUDIES
studies comparing the characteristics of family memebers to determine the importance of heredity in complex human characteristics
MEIOSIS
the process of cell division through which gametes are formed and in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is halved.
MITOSIS
the process of cell duplication, in which each new cell receives and exact copy of the original chromosomes
MODIFIER GENES
genes that can enhance or dilute the effects of other genes
MUTATION
a sudden but permanent change in a segment of dna
NICHE-PICKING
a type of genetic-environmental correlation in which individuals actively choose environments that complement their heredity
PHENOTYPE
the individual's physical and behavioral characteristics, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors
POLYGENIC INHERITANCE
a pattern of inheritance in which many genes affect the characteristic in question
PRENATAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS
medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth
PUBLIC POLICIES
laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions
RANGE OF REACTION
each person's unique, genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions
SEX CHROMOSOMES
the twenty-third pair of chromosomes, which determines the sex of the child-in females, called xx; in males, called xy
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES)
a measure of a family's social position and economic well-being that combines three related variables: years of education, the pretige of and skill required by one's job, and income
SUBCULTURE
a group of people with beliefs and customs that differe from those of the larger culture
X-LINKED INHERITANCE
a pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the x chromosome, so that males are more likely to be affected
ZYGOTE
the newly fertilized cell formed by the union of sperm and ovum at conception