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34 Cards in this Set

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Transition into parenthood includes
*the decisions leading up to parenthood
*the anticipation and preparation during the pregnancy
*labor, delivery, and birth
* weeks of adjustment after the birth where people learn and practice parenting behaviors
Physical changes in pregnancy
*tiredness
*nausea
*backaches
*leg cramps
*varicose veins
*hemmorrhoids
*bladder infections
*digestive problems
*shortness of breath
Medications for Childbirth
*tranquilizers
*analgesics
*anesthetics
Prepared Childbirth
*to educate expectant parents about birth process
*to provide group support
*to humanize the birth experience in a hospital setting
What do prepared childbirth classes focus on?
*physical factors of labor and childbirth
*excercises to get the body ready to give birth
*techniques of relaxation,controlled breathing, concentration, and visualization to manage labor
2 common misconceptions about natural childbirth
*Being informed about birthing techniques does not mean childbirth will be painless
*A woman can't use medication and drugs during the childbirth if she has taken natural childbirth classes
Anesthetics
*reduce the availability of oxygen to the fetus
*deaden sensation
Epidural
most common regional anasthetic and is induced in the lower back
Spinal
causes loss of all muscle control in the lower body
Local anasthetics
*include paracervical block
*pudendal block which numbs the nerves in the perineum at full dilation before an episiotomy is given
Paracervical blocks
*no longer common since the baby's heart rate is immediately affected and may slow to dangerous levels
*numbs the cervix area
Postpartum blues
*aka baby blues
*anxiety
*confusion
*insomnia
*restlessness
*exhaustion
*begin on the 3rd or 4th postpartum day
*is experienced by 50%-70% childbearing women
Postpartum depression
*a variety of mild to moderate depressive symptoms that arise within 6 months after childbirth
*20% mothers experience:
sadness
irritability
lethargy
loss of appetite
sleep disturbances
lessened sexual interest
*if they experience symptoms, seek professional help
Postpartum psychosis
*severe depression resulting in mental illness
*usually begins in the 1st month after delivery
*symptoms are
euphoria
mania
psychotic depression
hallucination
*is commonly misdiagnosed as postpartum blues until symptoms get worse
What does early evidence suggest?
That the arrival of the first child is so disruptive it constitutes a family crisis
Newborn characteristics
*average 7 lbs. (between 5 & 10 lbs.)
*20 inches long (most between 18 & 22)
*covered with vernix caseosa (oily protection against infection)
*some covered w/ lanugo (fuzzy prenatal hair)
*head is about 1/4 of the body length and misshapened & elongated
*nose is squashed looking
*skin may be red & splotchy (stork bite)
Crying
*major form of communication
*parents should find the reason for the cry and solve it
Colic
*is fairly predictable
*begins at age 2-3 weeks
*lasts until 3-4 months
*affects about 20% of normal full-term infants
*extreme fussiness
*periods of crying
*abdominal discomfort
John Bowlby 4 Stages of attachment
1.preattachment phase (birth - 6 weeks)
2.attachment in the making phase
(6 weeks to 6-8 months)
3.Clear Cut attachment phase
(7-8 months to about 2 years)
4.Formation of reciprocal relationship
(2 years and on)
Egocentrism
the ability to consider another person's point of view
initiative
when children are eager to understand adultlike activities and overstep the limits set by parents
self-efficacy
a sense of being able to do things on your own
sleep problems
*nightmares (bad dream)
*night terrors (partially awake, partially asleep)
self-esteem
child's evaluation of themself
self-concept
the cognitive understanding of a person seen from that person's own pov
social comparison
self-imposed stress
Cognitive competence
parents as coaches to watch, guide,and stay involved but not do activities for the child
morality
set of principles to distinguish right or wrong
*3 components are moral affect, moral reasoning, and moral behavior
homework
*a routine for hw should be established
*workspace is needed
*organization
5 types of school aged children
*popular
*rejected
*neglected
*controversial
*average
Role of parents
*promote responsible behavior
*Monitor leisure time activities
*learn about the child's friends
*deal w/ problems at home
The Strange Situation (Mary Ainsworth)
attachment
1 Securely Attached
2 Anxious/ambivalent(upset by separation, not easily comforted upon return)
3 Anxious/avoidant(not upset w/ strangers but upset when alone)
4 disorganized
temperament
how someone responds across different situations
Transductive Reasoning
when a child connects unrelated things together. (daddy left because i didn't clean my room)