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104 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 main parts of the cell?
Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and the nucleus
What is the plasma membrane?
forms ouer surface of the cell, flexible layer of lipids and proteins, acts as a selectively permeable barrier.
cell membranes are made up of what 3 types of lipids?
phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids
What are phopholipids?
synthesized from long carbon-hydrogen chanins (fatty acids); diglycerides, 2 fatty acids attached to a 3 carbon glycerol, 3rd carbon has non-lipid group; hydrophobic heads and hydrophilic tails.
amphipathic
hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends
phospholipid bilayer
not solid; fluid bilayer
Cell membranes are made up of:
25% phospholipids
55% protein
13% cholesterol
4% lipids
3% carbohydrates
what does cholesterol do?
helps maintain fluidity of the membrane
Proteins serve as what on the membrane?
receptors
transporters
ion channels
enzymes
component of outer coating of cell
what is glycocalyx?
a component of the outer coating
what are the functions of glycocalyx?
1. molecular signature of self
2. helps cells connect to each other
3. helps protect cells from damage
4. attracts water (reduces friction)
What are the 2 categories of proteins?
Integral proteins and peripheral proteins
Integral proteins:
transporters, ion channels
peripheral proteins
float on the surface, receptors
electrical potential
inside generally has a negative charge compared to the outside
what are the 5 types of transport?
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and vesicular transport
diffusion:
movement of substances from areas of high concentration to low concentration
6 factors that affect the rate of diffusion:
1. concetration difference (greater the concentration the faster the rate)
2. size of ion (smaller = faster)
3. distance (shorter=faster)
4. area (greater cross sectional = faster)
5. temperature (high = faster)
6. lipid solubility
What is Osmosis?
net movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute to region of high solute.
Osmotic pressure
the amount pressure that needs to e applied to keep the 2 sides equal
osmolarity
total solute concentration in the solution
isomotic (isotonic)
same solute concentration
hyposmotic (hypotonic)
lower solute concentration
hyperosmotic (hypertonic)
higher solute concentration
tonicity
comparison of solute concentration
facilitated diffusion
movement of substance from areas of high concentration to low concentration via carrier.
active transport
movement of molecules against a concentration gradient (up hill); energy required; uses carrier
what is cytosol?
the intracellular fluid
endocytosis
ingestion of minute quantities of extracellular fluid and dissolved substances into cell via small vesicles
exocytosis
releases particles from inside the cel to outside
what are organelles?
structures that perfrm specific functions within a cell like organs perform specific functions in the body
what is cytoplasm?
the cytosol and organelles (not including the nucleus)
cytosol has high ______, high concentration of ___, _______, and _____ for energy.
Potassium (K+), proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
cytoskeleton
organelles which provide cellular support; web of protein fibers that provide strength and flexibility to the cell.
4 components of the cytoskeleton
microfilaments, intermediate filaments, thick filaments, and microtubules
microfilaments
made up of actin, very thin, hold everything in place
intermediate filaments
prominent in parts of cell subject to mechanical stress, give strength, made up of keratin (rope like)
thick filaments
extra strength, myosin in muscles interact with actin to make muscles contract
microtubules
compused of tubulin, arranged to form hollow tubes, primary basis of cytoskeleton, anchors organelles, provides roadways, components of organelles.
centrioles
tube like structure of 9 triplets of 3 microtubules arranged in a ringm heart of cytoskeleton, microtubules radiate out from centrioles, cell reproduction- control chromosome movement
mitochondria
breaks down glucose and use energy from burning the sugar to produce ATP; has a double membrane.
cristae
folds of inner membrane
mitochondrial matrix
located inside the folds
Endoplasmic reticulum
network of membranes branching out from the nuclear envelope; important for synthesizing proteins, carbs, and lipids; storage and transportation for those molecules.
Rough ER
has ribosomes; synthesizes proteins
smooth ER
no ribosomes, important in synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates; synthesis of steroid hormones, synthesis and storage of glycerides, detox of some drugs, synthesis of glycogen in muscle and liver cells, stores in muscle cells.
golgi apparatus
flattened membrane sacs (saccules); little bits of proteins break off and attch to golgi.
forming face
when the golgi apparatus is being formed
medial cistenae
where the proteins pass through and get modified
what are the 3 types of vesicles at "maturing face"?
secretory, new or additional membrane, and transport vesicles.
proteoomes
perform the continuous destruction of unneeded, damaged, or incorrectly formed proteins
proteases
enzymes that break down protein into small chunks
nucleus
control center of the cell; contains DNA
how many chromosomes in the human cell?
23 pairs
nuclear envelope
nuclear membrane
nuclear pores
holes in the surface that allow things in and out of the cell
genes
hereditary information stored in codes for all processes; arranged in series down the chromosomes
genome
total of all you genetic information
genomics
study of the relationships between the genome and the actual biological functions of an organism
gene expression
the process where a gene's DNA is used to direct the synthesis of a specfic protein
histone
what the strand wraps around to fit inside your cell
nucleotides
3 part organic molecules containing a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
5 nitrogenous bases
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil
Which nitrogenous base is only in DNA?
Thymine
Which nitrogenous base is only in RNA?
Uracil
What are the defined pairs of nitrogenous bases in our DNA?
AT/ GC
Purines:
double ringed
pyrimidines
single ringed structures
what are the 2 stages of gene expression?
transcription and translation
transcription
transfer of code from DNA to mRNA
translation
turning the copy into a functional strand
promoter
start here signal
termination signal
stop here
pre-mRNA
junk DNA
introns
dont code for anything
extrons
do code for something- make DNA
Introns are removed by:
small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs)
codons
triplets on the DNA strand; each codon specifies 1 amino acid
translation
initiated when mRNA strand binds to light ribosomal subunit
anticodon
complementary base sequence on tRNA strand
cytokinesis
division of the cell
5 stages in the life cycle of a cell:
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
interphase
cells spends most of the time here growing
G1 phase
1st gap; cell duplicating organelles and growing
S phase
synthesis; cell synthesises new DNA
G2 phase
cell growth, enzymes and proteins synthesized
mitosis
division of the nucleus and chromosomes
prophase
chromatin condenses into chromosomes
chromatids
1 strand of the chromosome
centromere
keeps the 2 chromatids together
mitotic spindle
rope used to pull chromatids apart
kinetochore
lines coming out
metaphase
chromosomes arranged so that centromeres all lie in one plane half way between spindle poles
anaphase
paired chromosomes separate; chromatids move toward the spindle pole
telophase
separated daughter chromatids arrive a poles; nclear envelope reforms
cytokenesis
splitting the cell
cleavage furrow
indentation around cell
mitotic spindle
rope used to pull chromatids apart
kinetochore
lines coming out
metaphase
chromosomes arranged so that centromeres all lie in one plane half way between spindle poles
anaphase
paired chromosomes separate; chromatids move toward the spindle pole
telophase
separated daughter chromatids arrive a poles; nclear envelope reforms
cytokenesis
splitting the cell
cleavage furrow
indentation around cell