Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Personality?
The globally descriptive label for a person's observable behavior and subjective, reportable inner experiences.
How is personality different from emotions?
-It prevails across time and situations
-It allows you to distinguish between people
What is the prevalence of personality disorders in the general population?
What % of psych patients have a personality disorder?
What axis is personality disorder coded on?
Axis II
Axis I syndromes are generally _______ while Axis II syndromes are generally________
Axis I = egodystonic

Axis II = egosyntonic
What does egodystonic mean?
Upsetting or disagreeable to the ego
What does egosyntonic mean?
Agreeable or acceptable to the ego
Which syndromes are more episodic? Which are more chronic and stable?
Axis I = episodic
Axis II = chronic and stable
How do Axis II syndromes impact Axis I syndromes?
They can be a predisposing factor for them.
How can Axis I syndromes impact Axis II syndromes?
Axis I syndromes can make it look like there is an Axis II syndrome personality disorder when there really isn't one.
How do personality disorders interfere with treatment of axis I syndromes?
They increase the morbidity and mortality of patients with comorbid disorders.
What is an example of such interference?
Having schizophrenia with alcoholism.
Which patients are more likely to deny their symptoms and reject treatment; axis I or axis II patients?
Axis II - patients with personality disorders.
Why are patients with Axis II more prone to deny it?
They have worse insight.
What is a Personality Disorder?
An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from person's cultural expectations.
A personality disorder is manifested in 2/more of what 4 areas?
1. Cognition
2. Affectivity
3. Interpersonal functioning
4. Impulse control
When is the usual onset of personality disorders?
In adolescence or early adulthood
How are personality disorders organized?
Into 3 clusters: A, B, and C
What is Cluster A described as?
Psychotic prone
What are the 3 flavors of Psychotic prone Cluster A personality disorders?
1. Schizoid
2. Schizotypal
3. Paranoid
What is cluster B described as?
Poorly empathic
What are the 4 cluster B disorders?
What is cluster C described as?
Anxiety prone
What are the 3 cluster C disorders?
-Obsessive Compulsive
Do patients only get one or the other personality disorders?
No, they can have more than one
If they exhibit symptoms of one disorder, is it the full whammy?
No, it can just be traits..
What are the 3 contributors to the etiology of personality disorders?
1. Genetic/biological
2. Psychological
3. Social/cultural
How do we know there are genetic factors involved in personality disorders?
If one monozygotic twin has it, the other one probly does too
What do college students with low platelet MAO levels report?
Spending more time in social activities than other students
So what would indicate social avoidance?
High levels of platelet monoamine oxidase MAO..
What may low levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid be related to?
How is Schizoid personality disorder generally described?
-Detached from social relationships
-Restricted range of emotions
What are diagnostic criteria for Schizoid personality disorder?
1. No desire/enjoyment of close relationships - even family
2. Chooses solitary activity
3. Not interested in sex
4. Little pleasure in activities
5. Lacks close friends or confidants other than family
6. Indiff to praise/critisism
7. Emotionless, flat affect
How is Schizoid differentiated from Schizophrenia?
What psychotic symptoms would be present in Schizophrenia?
-Thought disorder (flight)
What is an example of Paranoid personality disorder?
Handing out an innocent survey and having a person get angry that you were part of the CIA collecting info on people.
What do patients with Paranoid personality disorder often do?
Project and refuse responsibility for their own feelings.
How is Paranoid personality disorder different from Schizoid?
Schizoid = emotionless

Paranoid = hostile, irritable and angry
How can you tell Schizotypal personality disorder apart from Schizoid, or Paranoid?
It has ODD Behaviors - like standing in a fish store for 3 hours deciding what is the best gravel to buy..
What is Schizotypal personality disorder characterized by? (2 features)
1. Low tolerance for close relationships (like schizoid)
2. Cognitive or perceptual distortions and ECCENTRIC behaviors (unique)
What are criteria for Schizotypal personality disorder?
1. Ideas of reference
2. Odd beliefs/magical thinking
3. Unusual perceptions including bodily illusions
Plus a mix of the criteria for schizoid/paranoid disorders
What is an example of magical thinking?
Thinking that one's thoughts could cause earthquakes
What is an example of Ideas of Reference?
Thinking that people on TV are talking about you directly.
What is the difference between Ideas of reference, and Delusions of reference?
Ideas of reference are ones that the patient CAN SEE and realizes are not real.
Do schizotypal personality disorder patients have delusions or reference?
What is an example of an unusual perceptual experience?
A mirage
Why is schizotypal personality disorder concerning?
Because it may be a pre-morbid personality of patients who develop schizophrenia and 10% commit suicide.
What is like the exact opposite of Schizoid personality disorder?
What are the 2 characteristic features of histrionic personality disorder?
-Excessive emotionality
-Attention seeking
What makes Histrionic PD patients uncomfortable so what do they do?
-Like being center of attention
-Use physical appearance to draw attention to themselves
-Sexually provocative
Though Histrionic patients are very emotional, what are their emotions like?
-Rapidly shifting
What is the speech of histrionic patients like?
Impressionistic and lacking in detail
What are the 4 features of Borderline personality disorder?
-Unstable relationships
-Unstable self-image
-Unstable affect
-Marked impulsivity
What are the criteria for diagnosing Borderline personality disorder?
1. Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandoment
2. Unstable/intense personal relationships - in a pattern
3. Unstable self image
4. Impulsive in spending, sex, or substance abuse
5. Suicidal behavior, self mutilating, etc.
6. Affective instability
7. Chronic feelings of emptiness
8. Inappropriately intense anger, difficult to control
9. dissociation
What is dissociation?
Separation or postponement of a feeling that normally would accompany a situation or thought.
What sex is borderline PD more common in?
What is borderline believed to be the result of?
Difficulties developing object constancy during rapprochement
When does rapprochement and object constancy develop?
From 15-24 months (2 yrs old)
What is narcissism?
Arrogant, entitled, envious, needs lots of admiration, has heightened sense of self-importance, grandiose feelings, and lack of empathy.
What is Antisocial personality disorder in a nutshell?
-A pervasive pattern of violating others' rights since the age of 15
What are the diagnostic criteria for Antisocial personality disorder?
-Breaks the law
-Irritable - repeated fights
-Lack of remorse
like david patton
How old does the person have to be to DIAGNOSE antisocial personality disorder?
But when do the symptoms have to have started?
Finish cluster C now
What is the main feature of the Avoidant personality disorder?
Extreme sensitivity to rejection which leads often to being socially withdrawn.
Do avoidant personality types avoid relationships because they don't want them?
No; they desire relationships but are too afraid of rejection.
When is the only time that avoidant personality types will get into relationships?
When they're sure the other one won't reject them.
What is the personality type that subordinates their own needs to the needs of others?
Dependent - like Joanne king
What are the defining features of dependent personality types?
-Lack self confidence
-Lack perseverance
-Hand over the major responsibility for their lives to others
What are the characteristic features of obsessive compulsive personality disorder?
-Emotionally constricted
How do you differentiate OCPD from OCD?
OCPD = egosyntonic

OCD = egodystonic and causes anxiety