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39 Cards in this Set

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definition of ecology (2 parts)
1. study of organisms and their environment
2. used to just be of organisms
3. abiotic=environment
biotic=animals
community
assemblage of animals and plants in a small area
structural profile
cellular, individual, population, community, ecosystem, landscape, biome
biosphere
all liveable area on world, most life found within only a few meters of the water surface
habitat
where an organism lives
niche (2)
1. what an organism does
2. all the environments in which an organism can survive
biome
large, characteristic area
autotroph vs heterotroph
makes own food vs. eats other organisms
food chain vs food web
food web is more complex
trophic levels
1-producers, 2-herbivores, 3-carnivores...organism is assigned to the highest trophic level it belongs to
community effects and keystones
keystone-important species to the community (ash) relationship of the emerald ash borer takes out the ash and highly impacts, hurts community
succession
orderly and predictible evolution in one direction
primary succession
vegetation in a place that there was none prior (glacier)...fast growing, short lived, early flowering, shade intolerant (apsen, mosses, lichen, grasses)
secondary succession
vegetation after there was vegetation destroyed prior (fire)...slow growing, long lived, need fertile site, shade tolerant, late flowering (oak, maple, beech)
4 regions in michigan
regions 1/2-higher temperature, more precipitation, more deciduous (maple-beech forest)...region 3/4-colder, less precipitation, more coniferous (spruce, pine, fir)
growing season
time between last freeze in spring and frist freeze in fall...determines distribution of plants
landscape change
alteration in structure and function of a landscape...expected and natural in evolution...but not good if it happens quickle
reasons for change in landscape
invasives (gypsy moth), human action (agriculture, natural disturbances (hurricaine), geomorphic processes (tides and winds)
fire positives and negatives
(+)makes room for new seedlings to grow (-)kills trees, humans and animals
great lakes invasives
there are many kinds, pests and non-pests, they've been here a while, they will keep coming, they have changed forest management
exotics...
good bugs(honeybee), good gone bad(tachnid fly), defoliators(gypsy moth), pathogens(dutch elm disease), complexes(beech bark disease), phloem borers(emerald ash borer)
soil made of? particle size?
minerals, water, air, organic material...clay has smallest particles, sand has largest (water moves most easily through large particles)
purpose of soil?
nutrients, holds things in place, engeenering medium, habitat, regulates water
ice age affected michigan?
checkerboard landscape (plains, lakes, hills etc)
biodiversity
variety and variability of organisms OR number of species on earth
facts on biodiversity
2 million known, of that 50% are insects, 10-30 million unknown species
where are species found?
latitudinal (find more diversity near equator), hot spots(costa rica, conditions good for diversification), endemics(ecuador/islands, speciation, organisms found only there)
threats to biodiversity
overharvesting, destruction, domino effect, pollution, climate change, invasives
tundra vs boreal forest
DIFF: boreal forest has caniferous trees where plants in tundra tend not to grow more than 20 cm, tundra deals with permafrost
SIM: cold winters, short growing season, lakes and bogs common
boreal vs deciduous
DIFF: boreal has spruce, pines and firs where deciduous has maples, beeches and oaks
SIM: similar temperatures, and landscape otherwise
grasslands vs desert
DIFF:grasslands don't have extreme temps, grasslands has high biomass where deserts have sparce vegetation
SIM: hot summers, dry periods
importance of rainforests
have extremely high species divesity...havn't been studied a lot b/c of difficulty
landscape viewpoints
habitat, place, ideology, history, artifact, wealth problem, aesthetics, nature, system
3 differences between UP and Lower Michigan forests
1. colder in UP
2. less diversity in UP
3. more confierous trees in UP
ephemerals
shade intolerant (wildflowers)bloom early in the spring and take advantage before the leaves in the overstory develop
important species of northern hardwood vs. maple-beech
pine, spruce, firs vs maple, beech, oak
boreal forest
coniferous trees, extremely cold winter, podcol soil
disturbances in boreal forest
insects, fire, logging
xenophytes
adapted to the dry climate of deserts (cactus) have no leaves and a shallow root system