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20 Cards in this Set

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volume
composition
The kidneys exert control over the _______ and ____________ of plasma by regulating it solute and water content.
volume
The _______ of plasma is determines almost ntirely by its water content because solutes only a negligable direct contributions to the volume,
solutes
The amount of _______ in plasma indirectly affects plasma volume because changes in plasma osmolarity can cause water to shift btwn the plasma and other body fluid compartments.
MAP
Plasma volume has an important influence on the body's homeostasis because it affects _____ _______ _______.
into
out
btwn
The solute and water content of the plasma is affected both by the movement of materials ____ or ____ of the body and by the movement of materials _______ different compartments of the body.
cells
extracellular conn. tissue
The plasma can gain or lose materials by exchange with _____ or with __________ _________ ______, such as the bone matrix.
calcium
phosphates
When the bone is resorbed, for ex., ________ and _________ are released into the plasma, which raises the concentrations of these substances; conversely, the deposition of _________ and ___________ into bone lowers their plasma concentrations.
G.I. tract
Renal tubules
sweating, hemorrhage, or respiration
The 3 other routes by which the plasma and the external environment can exchange materials: (1) either gain or loase materials by exchange with the lumen of the _____________ _____, (2) either gain or lose materials by exchange with the lumens of the _______ _______, and (3) lose materials through ________, ___________, or ____________.
gastrointestinal tract
Solutes and water are absorbed into the plasma from the _____________ _____ and also move from the plasma to the lumen of the tract in the form of saliva, bile, pancreatic juice, and other secretions.
ingestion
g.i. tract
kidneys
Under normal conditions, the absorptive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract is sufficient to recover virtually 100% of all secreted materials as well as those that enter the tract via ________ (eating or drinking). The rate at which solutes and water are lost by elimination from the ____________ _____ is very small compared to the rate at which these substances are lost through the excretion of urine by the kidneys.
g.i. tract
Consequently, the transport of materials across the walls of the ___________ _____ normally amounts to a net GAIN of solutes and water by the body.
glomerular filtration
secretion
reabsorption
Small solutes and water movem vrom the plasma to the lumen of the renal tubules by _________ _________ and _________. Solutes and water are returned to the plasma from the renal tubules by __________.
loss
Since not all this material is reabsorbed, the transport of materials acreoss the walls of the renal tubules amounts to a net ____ of water and solutes by the body. The lost materials are excreted in the urine.
balance
When solutes and water enter and exit the plasma at the same rate, the plasma's volume and composition do not change, and it is said to be in _________.
positive balance
When a substance enters the body faster than it exits, the substance is said to be in a state of ________ ________.
negative balance
If a substance leaves the body faster than it enters, the substance is in a state of _________ _________.
proximal tubule
Approximately 70% of the filtered water and sodium is reabsorbed in the ________ ________ in the absence of any regulation.
potassium
calcium
The kidneys also function is regulation of __________ and ________ levels in the blood and of acid-base balance.
distal tubule
collecting duct
principle cells
intercalated cells
The regulation of renal excretion occurs primarily in the late ______ ______ and _________ ____. Two types of epithelial cells line thses tubules: ________ ____ and __________ _____.
hormonal
principal cells
intercalated cells
Water and electrolyte balance is regulated through ________ actions on ________ ____, whereas acid-base balance is regulated through processes occuring within the ___________ _____.