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149 Cards in this Set

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Ewing sarcoma
Malignant bone tumor
exostosis
Bony growth arising from the surface of a bone (ex-means out, -ostosis means condition of bone)
fracture
Traumatic breaking of a bone
osteogenic sarcoma
Malignant tumor arising from bone (osteosarcoma)
osteomalacia
Softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone
Osteomyelitis
Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
osteoporosis
Decrease in bone density (mass): thinning and weakening of bone
talipes
Congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus)
Bursae
singular: (bursa)
are closed sacs of synovial fluid lined with a synovial membrane and are located near but not within a joint
tendons
connective tissue that connects a muscle to bone
ligaments
connective tissue binding bone to bone
articulation
joint
bursa (plural: bursae
Sac of fluid near a joint: promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another.
ligament
Connective tissue binding bones to other bones: supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint.
suture joint
Joint in which apposed surfaces are closely united: motion is minimal.
synovial cavity
Space between bones at a synovial joint: contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane
synovial fluid
Viscous (sticky) fluid withing the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white: this accounts for the origin of the term (syn-means like, ov/o means egg).
synovial joint
a freely movable joint.
snynovial membrane
Membrane lining the synovial cavity: it produces synovial fluid.
tendon
Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
ankyl/o
stiff
ankylosis
a fusion of bones across a joint space by either bony tissue (bony ankylosis) or growth of fibrous tissue (fibrous ankylosis). This immobility and stiffening of the joint most often occurs in rheumatoid arthritis
arthr/o
joint
arthroplasty
replacement arthroplasty is the replacement of one or both bone ends by a prosthesis (artificial part) of metal or plastic.
arthrotomy
define:
hemarthrosis
define:
hydrarthrosis
synovial fluid collects abnormally in the joint
polyarthritis
define:
articul/o
joint
articular cartilage
define:
burs/o
bursa
bursitis
condition may be related to stress placed on the bursa or to diseases such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis.
chondr/o
cartilage
achondroplasia
This is an inherited condition in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size because of a defect in cartilage and bone formation. Dwarfism occurs, with short limbs and a normal sized head and trunk
chondroma
define:
chondromalacia
chondromalacia patellae is a softening and roughening of the articular cartilaginous surface of the nee cap. Resultin in pain, a grating sesations, and mechnical catching behind the patella.
ligament/o
ligament
ligamentous
define:
rheumat/o
watery flow
rheumatologist
various forms of arthritis are marked by collection of fluid in joint spaces
synov/o
synovial membrane
ten/o
tendon
tenorrahaphy
define:
tenosynovitis
synov/o here refers to the sheath (covering) around the tendon
tendin/o
tendon
tendinitis
inflammation of the tendon
-desis
to bind, tie together
arthrodesis
Bones are fused across the joint space by surgery (artificial ankylosis), This operation is performed when a joint is very painful, unstable, or chronically infected.
-stenosis
narrowing
spinal stenosis
Narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine. Symtoms (pain, paresthesias, urinary retention, bowel incontinence) come from compresion of the cauda equina (nerves that spread out from the lower end of the spinal cord like a horse's tail).
arthritis
inflammation of joints.
ankylosing spondylitis
chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine.
gouty arthritis
Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
osteoarthritis (OA)
progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone(formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs) at articular surfaces.
rheumatoid arthritis (ra)
Chronic disease in which joints become inflamed and painful. It is believed to be caused by an immune ( autoimmune) reaction against joint tissues, particularly against the synovial membrane.
bunion
Abnormal swelling of the medial aspect of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
compression (by a wrist ligament) of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of wrist (the carpal tunnel)
dislocation
Displacement of a bone from its joint
ganglion
A fluid-filled cyst arising from the joint capsule or a tendon in the wrist.
herniation of an intervertebral disk
Abnormal protrusion of a fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disk into the neural canal or spinal nerves
lyme disease
a recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgia, malaise, and neurologic and cardiac symptoms
sprain
Trauma to a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments
systemic lupus erthematosus
chronic inflammatory diseas involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs.
striated muscles
also called voluntary or skeletal muscles
fascia
fibrous tissue that envelops and separates muscles
Cardiac muscle
is striated in appearance but is like smooth muscle in its action. Its movement cannot be consciously controlled.The fibers of cardiac muscle are branching fibers and are found in the heart.
flexion
decreasing the angle between two bones: bending a limb
extension
increasing the angle between two bones: straightening out a limb
abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
Movement toward the midline of the body
rotation
circular movement around an axis. INternal rotation is toward the midline and external rotation is away from the midline.
dorsiflexion
decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward). This is the opposite movement of stepping on the gas pedal when driving a car.
plantar flexion
the motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground as when pointing the toes or stepping on the gas pedal. Plant/o means sole of the foot.
supination
as applied to the hand and foforearm, the act of turning the palm forward, or up
pronation
as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of truning the palm backward, or down
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body.
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
dorsiflexion
backward (upward) bending of the foot.
extension
straightening of a flexed limb
fascia
fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body.
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
dorsiflexion
backward (upward) bending of the foot.
extension
straightening of a flexed limb
fascia
fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body.
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
dorsiflexion
backward (upward) bending of the foot.
extension
straightening of a flexed limb
fascia
fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
fascia
fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
flexion
bending ata a joint
insertion of a muscle
connection of the muscle to a bone tht moves
orgin of a muscle
connection of the muscle to a stationary bone
plantar flexion
bending the sole of the foot downward toward the ground
pronation
turning the palm bacward
rotation
circular movement around a central point
skeletal muscle
musle connected to bones: voluntary of striated muscle
smooth muscle
muscle connected to internal organs: involuntary or viscer
striated muscle
skeletal muscle
supination
turning the palm forward
visceral muscle
smooth muscle
fasci/o
fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
fasciectomy
define:
fibr/o
fibrous connective tissue
fibromyalgia
chronic pain and stiffness in muscles, joints, and fibrous tissue, especially of the back, shoulders, neck, hips, and knees.fatigue common complaint
leiomy/o
smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
leiomyosarcoma
define:
my/o
muscle
myalgia
define:
electromyography
define:
myopathy
define:
myocardio/o
heart muscle
myocardial
define:
myos/o
muscle
myositis
define
plant/o
sole of the foot
rhabdomy/o
skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
rhabdomyosarcoma
define:
-asthenia
lack of strength
-asthenia
lack of strength
myasthenia gravis
muscles lose strength because of a failure in transmission of the nervous impulse from the nerve to the muscle cell
-trophy
development, nourishment
astrophy
decrease in size of an organ tissue
amyotrophic
in amyotrohic lateral sclerosis (Lous Gehrig disease), muscles are affected (paralysis occurs) by degeneration of nerves in the spinal cord and lower rgion of the brain.
ab-
away from
dorsi-
back
dorsiflexion
define:
poly-
many, much
polymyalgia
polymyalgia rheumatica is a syndrome marked by aching and morning stiffness in the shoulder, hip, or neck for more than one month.
muscular dystrophy
a group in inherited diseases characterized by progressive weak degeneration of muscle and fibers without involvement of the nervous system
polymyositis
chronic inflammatory myopahty
antinuclear antibody test
(ANA)
detects an antibody resent in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematousus(SLE)
erthrocyte sedimentation
rate (ESR)
measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube
rheumatoid factor test (RF)
serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
serum calcium (Ca)
measurement of calcium level in serum
serum creatine kinase (CK)
measurement of an enzyme (creatine kinase) in serum
uric acid test
measurement of uric acid in serum
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the joint
arthrography
process of taking x-ray images after injection of contrast material into the joint
arthroplasty
surgical repair of a joint
arthroscopy
visual examination of the inside of a joint with an endoscope
bone density test
low-energy x-rays are taken of bones in the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist
bone can
utake of radioactive substance is measured in bone
computed tomography (CT)
x-ray beam is used with a computer to provide cross-sectional images.
diskography
x-ray of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of the disk)
electromyography (EMG)
process of recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation
magnetic resonace
imaging (MRI)
radio waves and a magnetic field create images of soft tissue
muscle biopsy
removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination