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319 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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mjr. brain centers: PostCG & funct?
.
mjr. brain centers: TempLob & funct?
.
mjr. brain centers: PreCG & funct?
.
mjr. brain centers: Occip & funct?
.
mjr. brain centers: Cerebell & funct?
.
mjr. brain centers: Pons & funct?
.
mjr. brain centers: MedObl & funct?
.
mjr. brain centers: which is motor cortx?
.
mjr. brain centers: which is sensory cortx?
.
mjr. brain centers: which is vision?
.
mjr. brain centers: which is hearing?
.
mjr. brain centers: which is for postr, bal?
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mjr. brain centers: which has body representations?
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mjr. brain centers: which specifies stimulus location?
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mjr. brain centers: which regulate muscle force, length, joint postn?
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mjr. brain centers: which is relay station between motor cortex & cerebellum?
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mjr. brain centers: which has pneumotax ctr?
.
mjr. brain centers: which is origin of trig nerve & facial nerve?
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mjr. brain centers: which contains resp centers?
.
define dysmetria
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mjr. brain centers: which is origin of vagus & glosso nerves?
.
funct of corpus callosum?
.
funct of thalamus?
.
list parts of basal ganglia?
.
funct of basal ganglia?
.
define akinesia
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define bradykinesia
.
define medial lemniscus
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what nerves make up posterior column?
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define fasciculus cuneatus
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define fasciculus gracilis
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define medial lemniscus
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define nucleus cuneatus
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define nucleus gracilis
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identify ascending sensory pathways (1st, 2nd, 3rd order) for touch pressure
.
pain/temp pathway: define (antero-lateral) spinothalamic tract
.
pain/temp pathway: list neural pathways, start w/ hot pain sensation
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define proprioreceptors
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proprio pathway: which goes on posterior cerebellar tract?
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proprio pathway: which goes on anterior spino-cerebullar tract?
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proprio pathway: where does muscle spindle pathway lead to?
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proprio pathway: where does global proprioreceptors pathway start?
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ascend. pain/temp pathway: what would happen if lesion at T4?
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descend. CST: where does it start?
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descend. CST: what is % of decussation?
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descend. CST: list the steps in the tract
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muscle spindles: which muscles do alpha motor neuron innervate?
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muscle spindles: what are the 3 types of intraf. fibers?
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muscle spindles: ratio of intraf. fibers?
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muscle spindles: which neuron innerv. dyn & stat nuclear bag fibers, nucl chain fibers?
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muscle spindles: which neuron innerv. stat. nucl. bag fibers & nucl. chain fibers?
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muscle spindles: what does gamma dynamic motor neurons innerv?
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muscle spindles: what does gamma static motor neurons innerv?
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muscle spindles: what are properties of the regions in intrafusal fibers?
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muscle spindles: what are 3 things that muscle spindles can measure?
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muscle spindles: what measure static muscle length?
.
None
muscle spindles: which nerves measure dynamic change in muscl. length?
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muscle spindles: what measures rate of change in muscl. length?
.
None
muscle spindles: what is the function of gamma dyn & gamma stat motor neurons?
.
stretch reflex: what are the 3 general components?
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stretch reflex: describe the all the steps in the pathway
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stretch reflex: what does IA sensory neuron do?
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stretch reflex: what does quad's motor neuron do?
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stretch reflex: what does antagonist's motor neuron do?
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stretch reflex: what does gamma motor neuron do?
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stretch reflex: what makes the gamma motor neurons in the intrafusal fibers more sensitive?
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flexion-cross extension reflex: describe all the steps in response to pain
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flexion-cross extension reflex: which nerve sends pain signal to spinal cord?
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flexion-cross extension reflex: what does A delta neuron synapse with?
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flexion-cross extension reflex: what does rectus femoris in pained leg eventually do? what nerve causes it?
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flexion-cross extension reflex: what does hamstrings in pained leg eventually do? what nerve causes it?
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flexion-cross extension reflex: what crosses over?
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flexion-cross extension reflex: what do quads in contralateral leg do? by what nerve?
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flexion-cross extension reflex: what do hamstrings in contralateral leg do? by what nerve?
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meninges: what are the 5 parts in vertebra?
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meninges: which layer is filled with CSF?
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meninges: what are the 6 parts in skull?
.
meninges: what are two parts of dura mater in skull?
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meninges: what is dural sinus? what does it contain?
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meninges: what is arachnoid villa? function?
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meninges: what is fax cerebri?
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4 ventricles: locate 4 ventricles
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4 ventricles: where is 3rd ventri?
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4 ventricles: where is 4th ventri?
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4 ventricles: where is interventricular foramen?
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4 ventricles: where is cerebral aqueduct?
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4 ventricles: where is lateral aperture?
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4 ventricles: where is medial aperture
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4 ventricles: where is central canal?
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4 ventricles: what fills ventricles?
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CSF: how much does brain produce a day?
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CSF: blood flow to brain?
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CSF: cardiac output?
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CSF: brain receives what $ of cardiac output?
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CSF: 3 sources & % of CSF production?
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define choroid plexus
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define ependymal cells
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3 functs of CSF?
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describe flow of creating CSF?
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composition of CSF?
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general direction of circulation of CSF?
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what struct component do ependymal cells contain?
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what are differences between CSF and blood plasma?
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where does arachnoid villi drain CSF into?
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which system describes the non-autonomic nerves?
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what are two parts of autonomic NS?
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2 properties of sympathetic NS?
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2 properties of parasympathetic NS?
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which NS is generally excitatory?
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which NS is generally inhibitory?
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which NS is fight/flight? which NS is calming?
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describe 3 parts of autonomic motor neuron? neurotransmitters involved? myel/unmyel?
.
None
describe somatic motor neuron? what is neurotrasmitter used? exhitin/inhib? myel/unmyel?
.
describe all arteries, receptors, BP changes, organs, organ centers involved in baro-receptor reflex
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what is sympathetic NS also called?
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sympathetic ganglia: # of cerv gangl?
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sympathetic ganglia: # of thorac gangl?
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sympathetic ganglia: # of lumbar gangl?
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sympathetic ganglia: # of sacral gangl?
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sympathetic ganglia: # of coccyg gangl?
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nerv pathways of symp NS: one that leads to skil, skeletal muscles?
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nerv pathways of symp NS: define gray ramus communicans
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nerv pathways of symp NS: define white ramus communicans
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nerv pathways of symp NS: describe post-ganglionic spinal nerve? myel/unmyel? color?
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somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: what does somatic N look like? (begin, midd, end)
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somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: somatic N: what neurotransmitter used?
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somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: somatic N: inhib or excit?
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somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: somatic N: what's the effector? what's end product?
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somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: somatic N: divergence ratio?
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somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: what does sympath N look like?
.
somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: segments of sympath N: length & myelination of each?
.
somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: sympath N: neurotransm for ganglion?
.
somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: sympath N: neurotransm?
.
somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: sympath N: effectors?
.
somatic v sympath v parasympath neurons: sympath N: divergence ratio?
.
symp N -> pre-gang routes: describe spinal nerve route?
.
symp N -> pre-gang routes: spinal nerve route: 3 examples of effectors?
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symp N -> pre-gang routes: spinal nerve route: what are piloerector muscl?
.
symp N -> pre-gang routes: describe sympth nerv route?
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symp N -> pre-gang routes: describe splanchnic nerv route?
.
latin meaning for "splanchin"?
.
sympath pathways: how many cervical symp chain ganglia are there?
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sympath pathways: effect on eyes?
.
sympath pathways: effect on lungs?
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sympath pathways: effect on lungs v asthma?
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sympath pathways: neurotransm released in lungs?
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sympath pathways: exhit/inhib effect on liver? promotes what?
.
sympath pathways: exhit/inhib effect on GI tract?
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sympath pathways: exhit/inhib effect on adrenal kidneys? promotes what?
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sympath pathways: adrenal gland made up of what? what's on inside/outside?
.
sympath pathways: etymology of adrenaline v epinephrine?
.
sympath pathways: effect on specific part of adrenal cortex? percentages?
.
sympath pathways: range of region in spinal cord?
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parasympath pathways: also known as?
.
parasympath pathways: what cranial nerves are involved?
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parasympath pathways: what sacral regions of spinal cord are involved?
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parasympath pathways: what is cranial nerve III?
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parasympath pathways: what is cranial nerve VII?
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parasympath pathways: what is cranial nerve IX?
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parasympath pathways: what is cranial nerve X?
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parasympath pathways: which is oculomotor nerve?
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parasympath pathways: which is facial nerve?
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parasympath pathways: which is glossopharyngeal nerve?
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parasympath pathways: which is vagus nerve?
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parasympath pathways: what does parasym N look like? segments? neurotrans released?
.
parasympath pathways: parasym N: divergence ratio?
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parasympath pathways: what nerve(s) originate in midbrain?
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parasympath pathways: what nerve(s) originate in pons?
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parasympath pathways: what nerve(s) originate in medulla?
.
parasympath pathways: _X_ blocks action of _X_ on eye, which blocks pupil dilation
.
struct diff's between symp & parasymp divisions: origin in CNS
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struct diff's between symp & parasymp divisions: fiber lengths
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struct diff's between symp & parasymp divisions: location of ganglia
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struct diff's between symp & parasymp divisions: divergence
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struct diff's between symp & parasymp divisions: effects of system
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collat gangl, symp div: list 3 of them
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collat gangl, symp div: which organs are effectors of celiac gangl? inhib or excit?
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collat gangl, symp div: which organs are effectors of superior mesenteric gangl? inhib or excit?
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collat gangl, symp div: which organs are effectors of inferior mesenteric gangl? inhib or excit?
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parasymp pathways: which organs are effectors of oculomotor nerve? inhib/excit?
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parasymp pathways: which ganglion is part of oculomotor nerve?
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parasymp pathways: which organs are effectors of facial nerve? inhib/excit?
.
parasymp pathways: which ganglion are part of facial nerve?
.
parasymp pathways: what makes up salivary glands? what do they cause?
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parasymp pathways: which organs are effectors of glossopharyngeal nerve? inhib/excit?
.
parasymp pathways: which organs are effectors of vagus nerve? inhib/excit?
.
parasymp pathways: which plexuses are part of vagus nerve?
.
parasymp pathways: range of sacral region?
.
parasymp pathways: which plexus does sacral region innervate?
.
parasymp pathways: which organs are effectors of sacral region? inhib/excit?
.
anatomy of eye: what are 3 tunics that form wall of eye?
.
anatomy of eye: what makes up tunica fibrosa?
.
anatomy of eye: what makes up tunica vasculosa?
.
anatomy of eye: what makes up inner tunic?
.
anatomy of eye: composition of sclera?
.
anatomy of eye: where is cornera and describe it?
.
anatomy of eye: 3 functions of ciliary body?
.
anatomy of eye: where does retina receive bloody supply & nutrit?
.
anatomy of eye: what happens if prolonged detachment of retina from choroid?
.
anatomy of eye: where is anterior chamber?
.
anatomy of eye: where is posterior chamber?
.
anatomy of eye: list optical components (which admit & focus light)
.
anatomy of eye: list neural components
.
anatomy of eye: where is blind spot?
.
anatomy of eye: what is vitreous humor?
.
anatomy of eye: where is ora serrata?
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anatomy of eye: where is vision most distinct?
.
anatomy of eye: what produces aqeuous humor?
.
anatomy of eye: aque humor: list path of circulation? where exits?
.
anatomy of eye: what is glaucoma?
.
anatomy of eye: what is cataracts?
.
dimensions of relaxed lens?
.
symp div: pupil dilation or constriction?
.
parasymp div: pupil dilation or constriction?
.
refraction stuff: speed of light in vacuum? (in km and mil)
.
refraction stuff: is reduced when ...
.
refraction stuff: define refraction
.
refraction stuff: define refraction index
.
refraction stuff: refract index of air
.
refraction stuff: refract index of cornea
.
refraction stuff: refract index of lens
.
refraction stuff: describe refraction as it enters eye
.
accomodation: define it
.
accomodation: what is the ciliary body?
.
accomodation: what does ciliary body do? helped by what?
.
accomodation: describe steps in parasymp stimulation of lens. what happens to lens? far/close obj?
.
accomodation: describe steps in symp stimulation of lens. what happens to lens? far/close obj?
.
abnormal vis: define emmetropia. place of focal plane?
.
None
abnormal vis: define hyperopia. shape of eyeball? place of focal plane? how to correct?
.
None
abnormal vis: define myopia. shape of eyeball? place of focal plane? how to correct?
.
None
abnormal vis: define presbyopia. what happens to lens?
.
None
abnormal vis: define astigmatism. can be corrected?
.
None
sensory receptors: what do they detect?
.
sensory receptors: examples of detected sensory modalities?
.
sensory receptors: how is impulse generated?
.
sensory receptors: what happens to intensify impulse?
.
photoreceptors: rods are for what kind of vision?
.
photoreceptors: cones are for what kind of vision?
.
photoreceptors: structure: what's in layer 1?
.
photoreceptors: structure: what's behind layer 1?
.
photoreceptors: structure: what's in layer 2?
.
photoreceptors: structure: what's in layer 3?
.
photoreceptors: structure: what forms the optic nerve?
.
photoreceptors: structure: what are the other cells that don't form their own layers?
.
photoreceptors: convergence: # of rods, cones, & optic nerve fibers?
.
photoreceptors: what is rhodopsin made of?
.
photoreceptors: purpose of pigment epithelium?
.
photoreceptors: visual pigment for rods?
.
photoreceptors: visual pigment for cones?
.
struct: list principle cell layers of retina from back of eye to front
.
None
struct: what forms the optic nerve?
.
None
struct: what are 3 main layers for the structure of rods and cones?
.
None
struct: funct of pigmented cuboidal cells?
.
None
struct: cones are for what kind of vision?
.
None
struct: rods are for what kind of vision?
.
None
struct: function of horizontal cells?
.
None
struct: function of amacrine cells?
.
None
struct: what do pigmented ganglion cells contain?
.
None
struct: 3 functions of horiz & amacrine cells?
.
None
struct: 2 functions of pigmented ganglion cells?
.
None
struct: what are the 3 segmental regions of rods & cones?
.
None
rods & cones: visual pigment in rods?
.
rods & cones: visual pigment in cones?
.
rods & cones: what structures are part of outer segment?
.
rods & cones: what structures are part of inner segment?
.
rods & cones: what structures are part of cell body?
.
rods & cones: what are mitochondria?
.
optic nerv signl: what makes up rhodopsin?
.
None
optic nerv signl: what is opsin?
.
None
optic nerv signl: what is retinal?
.
None
optic nerv signl: what is IPSP? mV?
.
None
optic nerv signl: what is EPSP? mV?
.
None
optic nerv signl: RMP for neurons?
.
None
optic nerv signl: diff between local potential and action potential?
.
None
optic nerv signl: describe a graphical representation of action potential and all the stages
.
None
optic nerv signl: in the dark, what state is rhodopsin in and its components?
.
None
optic nerv signl: list 4 steps of rods in response to the dark
.
None
optic nerv signl: what neutrotransmitter is released in dark reaction of rods?
.
None
optic nerv signl: what is the end product of a dark reaction for rods?
.
None
optic nerv signl: what begins the dark reaction of rods?
.
None
optic nerv signl: describe 7 steps of light reaction for rods
.
None
optic nerv signl: what begins the light reaction of rods?
.
None
optic nerv signl: what is the end product of a light reaction for rods?
.
None
optic nerv signl: what is the activated form of rodopsin?
.
None
optic nerv signl: pathways from optic nerves to occip lobe: what happens at optic chiasma?
.
None
optic nerv signl: pathways from optic nerves to occip lobe: consequence of hemi-decussation?
.
None
optic nerv signl: pathways from optic nerves to occip lobe: describe all segments of the path
.
None
where in the spinal cord does ascend touch press tract go thru?
.
where in the spinal cord does ascend pain temp tract go thru?
.
where does decussation occur in the touch press tract?
.
where does decussation occur in the pain temp tract?
.
where does decussation occur in the descend corticspin tract (CST)?
.
pain/temp pathw: where does decussation occur?
.
pain/temp pathw: where in the spina column does antero-lateral spinothalamic tract begin?
.
pain/temp pathw: what is the tract called from the spinal column up to the thalamus?
.
pain/temp pathw: where does it end?
.
pain/temp pathw: where are the 1st, 2nd, 3rd order sensory neurons?
.
pain/temp pathw: damage to cerebell will interfere w/ what sense?
.
pain/temp pathw: role of PCG in regards to pain?
.
pain/temp pathw: role of thalamus in regards to pain?
.
pain/temp pathw: what happens if spinal lesion occurs at T4?
.
proprio pathw: what's ICP?
.
proprio pathw: what's SCP?
.
proprio pathw: what's CC?
.
proprio pathw: what's function of cerebellum?
.
proprio pathw: what do muscle spindles do?
.
avg male brane?
.
avg female brane?
.
descend cst: what structures in brain does it pass thru?
.
descend cst: what's tract after medulla?
.
descend cst: what happens in spinal cord?
.
descend cst: what's at end?
.
descend cst: what's lat CST?
.
descend cst: what's ant CST?
.
descend cst: what's IC?
.
Symp NS: range in the spinal cord?
.
collat gangl: which region on chain ganglia covers celiac?
.
collat gangl: which region on chain ganglia covers sup mesenterc?
.
collat gangl: which region on chain ganglia covers inf mesenterc?
.