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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
In 1066, who led the Norman Conquest of England at the Battle of Hastings?
William of Normandy (aftewards known as "William the Conqueror)
Hmmm... the same name as one of Prince Charles and Princess Diana's kids.
What did William do to centralize his power when he took over the throne of England?
(1) He made everyone pledge their FIRST allegiance to HIM, not their local lord or noble.
(2) He had a census done of all property and people in England so he could centralize taxes
(1) "kiss my ring" might be a hint!
(2) he also needed money so he did this to control his income.
What was the name of William's census of everything possible to tax?
The Domesday (pronounced dooms day) Book.
This would be like the lord's day of reckoning - everything would be as accurate, he thought.
Edward I created a custom of meeting with the lords and clergy on one side and the townspeople and knights on the other. What was this called?
Model Parliament (it became the basis of the British modern two house parliament).
The House of Lords and House of Commons are the two parts of this today.
What king was forced to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215?
King John I.
Richard the Lionhearted's half brother who also looks bad in Robin Hood Movies.
What actions of John's had upset the nobility?
He raised taxes without permission. He led several failed war campaigns. He arrested and imprisoned people without following the law. He failed to follow English traditions.
Oh the usual king out of control things.
What did King John's forced signing of the Magna Carta show?
That the KING is NOT above the law. That other people's traditional rights must be respected.
The first check on a king's power. Although these rights were at first just for nobles, eventually rights were extended to all groups.
What are the roots of English common law?
Henry II sent out royal court justices and eventually, the king's laws became "common law" to all.
He wanted his laws above the canon (clergy or church) laws and local laws and customs.
What kind of jury originated with Henry II's juries?
Grand juries - they hear evidence to determine if there is enough for a trial.
The pre-jury juries.
What Scottish Catholic family came to power after the death of Tudor Queen Elizabeth I?
The Stuarts.
Roll the r when you say it. By the way, it goes JCCJ:
James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II.
What did Charles I believe justified anything he wanted to do as king of England?
Divine Right - the king is god's lieutenant on earth - the king is above the law.
Similar to China's Mandate of Heaven.
What Scottish Catholic family came to power after the death of Tudor Queen Elizabeth I?
The Stuarts.
Roll the r when you say it. By the way, it goes JCCJ:
James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II.
Who were the "Round heads"?
The Puritan (Protestant) members of Parliament who were against King Charles I.
They wore cylindrical pilgrim like hats. They believed in no fun, no dancing, no etc etc.
Who led the "Roundheads" and Parliament?
Oliver Cromwell.
This guy is blamed for the execution of the king.
What did Charles I do to inflame the Parliament against him?
He dissolved Parliament at will.
He signed the Petition of Right 1628 and then ignored it. He ignored the rights of the members of Parliament. He threw people in jail without cause.
He felt as an absolute monarch he had the right to do this stuff.
Who won the English Civil War, the King's Cavaliers or the Roundheads and Cromwell?
The Roundheads and Cromwell.
What happened to Charles I?
He was executed.
Sort of a strict way to prove the king isn't above the law.
How did Cromwell run the government of England during the "kingless decade"?
He started as a republic or commonwealth but eventually ruled more and more harshly as a military dictatorship.
Not very well. He put Puritan rules into force and closed the pubs. This was VERY unpopular in England!
When Cromwell died, who did the English turn to again?
The Stuart Kings: Charles II was "restored to power".
The Stuart Restoration.
What was the first thing Charles II did to make himself popular as ruler of England?
Opened the pubs.
The Guinness company is grateful.
When Charles II died, James II came to power. What was he like?
Like Charles I, he believed in Divine Right, absolutism, and that only his religion -- Catholicism should prevail.
He didn't learn from history.
What was the "Glorious Revolution"?
It was a bloodless revolution in which the king (James II) was deposed and William and Mary came to power.
This was glorious because it didn't involve execution this time.
What did William and Mary have to do to become rulers of England?
They had to sign the "Bill of Rights" (1689).
Parliament wanted to make sure no one ever violated their rights again.
What rights were affirmed by the Bill of Rights?
Habeas Corpus (no arrest without cause/ evidence); Parliament has the power of the purse; the king isn't above the law.
Another great check on the king's power.
Over time, what group of advisors developed out of Parliament to advise the king?
The Cabinet.
Our President has one, too.
Over time, which house of Parliament grew in power?
The House of Commons (common people).
NOT the Lords - they were less and less powerful.
What power does the House of Lords have today?
Only to delay legislature, not stop it.
The common people won.
What did the reform bills of the 1800s do in English government?
They extended voting rights and fairer, more equal rights to more and more groups: farmers, working men, urban dwellers got better representation.
They got rid of 'rotten boroughs' - districts which had few people but lots of power representationally.
What last group got their rights in the 1920s?
What is a parliamentary democracy?
The main representation and law making body is Parliament.
The English style of government was borrowed and used in Japan and India and many other nations.
What is a limited or constitutional monarch?
His or her powers are limited by law.
Queen Elizabeth is one, Emperor Akihito of Japan is another, etc.
What English Enlightenment writer influenced Thomas Jefferson with his ideas about the "social contract" and "rights of man"?
John Locke.
property was changed to pursuit of happiness
What French writer always got in trouble standing up for freedom of speech during the Enlightenment?
"I may not agree with you, but I will defend to the death your right to say it!"
What French noble wrote "the Spirit of the Laws" in which he identified separation of powers (checks and balances) as important to governments?
Baron de Montesquieu
He also felt the bigger the nation, the less democratic it could be.