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5 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AUDITORY OSSICLES

STAPES (STIRRUP)
3. Stapes (stirrup)

a. Head: laterally directed, apical process; articulates with the lenticu-
lar process of the incus at the incudostapedial joint

b. Neck: constricted part adjoining the head
c. Crura: an anterior and a posterior crus extend from the neck to the
base; the anterior crus is shorter than the posterior crus

d. Base: flat, oval plate; attached to the margin of the oval window by
the annular ligament
AUDITORY OSSICLES

-suspended where?
-mucosa, continous w/?
4. The auditory ossicles are suspended within the tympanic cavity by deli-
cate ligaments; the mucosa lining the tympanic cavity ensheaths the
auditory ossicles and is also continuous with the mucosa lining the mas-
toid antrum, mastoid air cells, and auditory tube
AUDITORY OSSICLES

CC: "incudo-malleolar & incudo-stapedial joints"
5. Clinical note: since the incudomalleolar and incudostapedial joints are
synovial joints, they are subject to the same diseases, such as arthritis,
as other synovial joints
TENSOR TYMPANI

OIAI
1. Tensor tympani

a. Origin: the wall of the superior semicanal of the musculotubal canal

b. Insertion: its tendon bends laterally at a right angle over the coch-
leariform process to insert on the medial surface of the superior part
of the manubrium of the malleus

c. Action: contracts reflexly in response to loud sounds, and thus, ex-
erts a protective dampening effect by tensing the tympanic membrane
and reducing its sensitivity

d. Innervation: nerve to the tensor tympani, a branch of the nerve to
the medial pterygoid, which, in turn, is a branch of the mandibular
nerve
STAPEDIUS

OIAI

CC: "FACIAL NERVE INJURY"
2. Stapedius

a. Origin: the inner wall of the pyramidal eminence

b. Insertion: its tendon exits the orifice at the apex of the pyramidal
eminence and inserts on the posterior aspect of the neck of the stapes

c. Action: contracts reflexly in response to loud sounds, and thus, ex-
erts a protective dampening effect by holding the stapes against the
oval window

d. Innervation: nerve to the stapedius, a branch of the facial nerve

e. Clinical note: facial nerve injury and paralysis of the stapedius re-
sults in excessive acuteness of hearing or hyperacusia