• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/232

Click to flip

232 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What part of enzymes do heavy metals affect?
-SH groups
What are arsenics effects on the vasculature?
Depends on BV integrity
- Leads to vasculitis
Two effects of Lead
- Affects nervous system
- Interferes with Hgb leading to anemia
Effects of lead in the gut
Affects Ca++ utilization
What is Cu toxicity caused by?
Accumulation in lvier
What does Cu cause?
Severe hepatocellular necrosis
What species is Cu a problem in?
Sheep
What species is Mo a problem in?
Cattle
Ideal Cu/Mo ratio
6:1
Cu/Mo ratio of Cu toxicity
10:1
Mo/Cu ratio of Mo toxicity
2:1
Tx of F
None available.
Three effects of F
- Brown spots on teeth
- Tooth enamel damage
- Exostosis on bones, especially on the ribs
Tx of Cd
None available.
Lesion of Fe
Centrilobular necrosis
What causes Beer Drinker's Cardiomyopathy?
Co
Two affects of Cr
- Carcinogen
- Septal defects
What heavy metal affects all types of muscle?
Barium
What does Mg cause when in excess?
CNS problems
What is Iodine used for?
Tx of footrot
What does an excess of Iodine resemble?
Hypovitaminosis A
What does Ag cause?
Slate gray discolorations
What does Se substitute for?
Sulphur
What does Se cause in pigs?
Neuro disease
What does Se affect?
Keratinized tissues
What are most problems with S related to?
Sulfates in feed/water
What is S usually converted to and what does this cause?
H2S
- Polioencephalomalacia
Tx of S
None available.
What does Zn cause a problem in and how?
Growing foals
- Interferes with Cu utilization
Tx of Zn
Reduce dietary Zn and supplement Cu
What occurs with Zinc?
Swelling in joints that becomes painful
Tx of OP
2-PAM if OP hasn't been bound too long
Tx of acute muscarinic disease associated with OP
Atropine
Two types of effects of OP that cannot be controlled
- Nicotinic
- Adrenergic
What is contraindicated with carbamates and why?
2-PAM
- Prolongs symptoms because Carbamate will eventually reverse itself, and then 2-PAM binds those ACHe molecules that carbamate came free of
What is the most common insectides?
Pyrethrins
What are pyrethroids toxic to?
Cats
Tx of Pyrethroids
Diazepam
CS of Pyrethroid toxicity (2)
- Trembling
- Salivation
MoA of strychnine
Blocks glycine receptors
What does Strychnine cause?
Spinal convulsion
Lesion with Strychnine
Full stomach without vomiting
What's the opposite of Strychnine's vomiting signs?
Compound 1080
- Vomiting with empty stomach
Tx of Strychnine
PENTObarbital
4 factors blocked by anticoagulants
- II
- VII
- IX
- X
MoA of Compound 1080
Blocks aconitase
Lesion of Compound 1080
Vomiting on empty stomach
What rodenticide affects all tissues (pantropism)?
Thallium sulfate
- So wide variety of symptoms
Tx of Thallium sulfate
Prussian blue
MoA of P (2)
- Turns into phosphine gas
- Affects cellular metabolism
What does cholecalciferol cause? (2)
- Hypercalcemia
- Calcification of tissues and kidneys
Tx of Cholecalciferol
Px only
- Calcitonin
- Corticosteroids
- Fluids
MoA of Bromethalin
Interferes with H+ gradient, uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation
What does DEET resemble?
A pyrethroid
MoA of Amitraz
a2 agonist
- Similar to Xylazine
Effect of amitraz
Prolongs hyperglycemia
What classification is Metaldehyde?
Molluscide
DDx of Metaldehyde (2)
- Strychnine
- Compound 1080
What is fatal about metaldehyde?
Death due to liver damage
What do Fungicides cause?
Temperature increase
Tx of fungicide toxicity
Cool down animal
Example of fungicides
DNP
Primary symptom of Dipyridyl compounds
- Fibrogenic lung responses
MoA of Dipyridyl compounds
Causes superoxide production
What is the safest herbicide?
Glyphosphate
Oldest herbicide
Sodium chlorate
MoA of Sodium chlorate
Forms Methemoglobin
Symptom of Sodium chlorate
Hemolysis
What does acer cause?
Hemolysis
Species affected by Acer
Horses
Species affected by Allium
- Horses
- Cattle
- Cats
Tx of Allium
Methylene blue
What does Allium cause in cats?
Methemoglobinemia
What does Allium causes in horses and cattle?
Hemolysis
Two species affected by Pteridium
- Cattle
- Horses
Symptom of Pteridium in cattle
Aplastic anemia
Symptom of Pteridium in horses
Neurological disease due to thiaminase
Three Milkweed genera
- Asclepias
- Datura
- Nerium
TA of Milkweeds
Cardioactive glycosides
Two CS of Milkweeds
- Vagolytic
- Neurological signs
Tx of Milkweeds
- Atropine
- Physostigmine
CS of Baileya
Rapid, LOUD heartbeat
Species affected by Baileya
Sheep
TA of Kalanchoe
Glycosides
Two organ systems affected by Kalanchoe
- Neuro
- Cardio
Symptom of Taxus
Stops heart in diastole
Tx of Taxus
None available.
What does Gossypol cause?
Cardiopulmonary disease
What animals does Gossypol primarily affect? (2)
- Dogs
- IMMATURE ruminants
What is the TA of Fog Fever?
3-methylindole
- Converted from L-tryptophan
Two clinical signs of Fog Fever
- Pulmonary edema
- Emphysema
What causes fog fever?
Inhalation of eructus
Two CS with Astragalus emoryanus
- Pulmonary issues
- Fetlock knuckling
What does Perilla cause? (2)
- Pulmonary edema
- Emphysema
Two species affected by Perilla
- Cattle
- Horses
When is Aesculus a problem?
Spring
Two locoweed genera
- Astragulus
- Oxytropis
Most susceptible species to locoweeds
- Horse
3 conditions caused by locoweeds
- Abortion
- Teratogenesis
- Selenium CS due to accumulation in plant
Tx of Brunfelsia
Pentobarbital for convulsions
What does Centaurea cause?
Equine nigropallidial encephalomalacia
What does Cicuta affect?
Young calves
Three species of Claviceps
- C. paspalli
- C. purpurea
- C. cinerea
What two species of Claviceps cause neuro and gangrene signs?
- C. purpurea
- C. cinerea
What species of Claviceps causes only neurological signs?
C. paspalli
- Dallis grass
Symptom of Conium
Teratogen
Species affected by Conium
Pigs
What do Cycads cause in dogs?
Hepatotoxicity
What do Cycads cause in cattle?
Neuro signs
What species is most susceptible to Delphinium?
Cattle
Organ system affected by Delphinium
Neuro
Tx of Delphinium
Nicatinamide
What Helenium species is the most toxic?
Helenium microcephalum
What Helenium species causes spewing sickness?
Helenium hoopseii
What's the most important toxic plant to the Sheep industry?
Hymenoxys
What's unique about Hymenoxys in sheep?
They can become habituated to it.
What plant genus has LSD as its TA?
Ipomoea
What causes photosensitization in goats?
Eupatorium
TA of Eupatorium and Isocoma
Tremetol
Species affected by Kallstroemia
Cattle
Lesions of Kallstroemia
No gross lesions
Two symptoms of Kallstroemia
- Posterior paralysis
- Fetlock knuckling
Lesion of Karwinskia
Demyelination
Symptom of Acacia
Guajillo wobbles
Two species affected by Acacia
- Sheep
- Goats
Lesion of Lobelia in cattle
Downer Cow Syndrome
- Can recover
Which species of Peganum is native to TX?
Peganum mexicanum
Two symptoms of Peganum
- Acute CNS depression
- Knuckled fetlocks
What does Equisetum cause?
Thiaminase deficiency in horses
What causes Crazy Cow Syndrome?
Solanum dimidatum
Lesion of Crazy Cow Syndrome
Purkinje cell necrosis
Which species recovers from Sophora?
Sheep
- Cattle do not
Lesion of Vicia
Granulomatous kidney and skin
What plant genus is often mistaken for an onion?
Zygadenus
What does Euphorbia cause?
Blistering of oral cavity
3 organ systems affected by Lantana in horses
GI
Liver
Renal
What is Phytolacca?
Poke Salad
Primary species affected by Phytolacca
Pigs
Primary species affected by Phoradendron
Dogs
Which species is most resistant to Ricinus?
Ruminants
What species is most susceptible to Ricinus?
Horses
MoA of Ricinus
Affects RNA transcription
- Similar to antibiotics
What organ does Sesbania affect in cattle?
Abomasum
DDx of Sesbania
Arsenic
What organ system does Xanthium affect? (2)
- GI
- Liver
Four soluble oxalates
- Na
- K
- NH4
- Oxalic acid
Lesion of Soluble Oxalates
Pharyngeal swelling
Lesion of Amaranthus
Peri-renal edema
How does Amaranthus cause death?
Metabolic acidosis
Two genera that contain only soluble oxalates as the TA
- Halogeton
- Sarcobatus
What does Kochia cause in cattle?
Polioencephalomalacia
Treatment of Kochia
Thiamine
3 organ systems affected by Kochia
- Renal
- Liver
- Nervous
5 plants that contain soluble oxalates
- Amaranthus
- Beta
- Halogeton
- Sarcobatus
- Kochia
Two insoluble oxalates
- Mg
- Ca
Tx of Lilium
2 - 3x fluid diuresis
How fast do you need to treat Lilium?
Within 36 hours
What's used to Px Quercus toxicity?
CaOH
What does Vicea (vetch) cause?
Granulomatous lesions
What does Crotalaria cause in horses?
Pulmonary lesions
Primary species affected by Cycads?
Canines
Lesion caused by Xanthium
Centrilobular necrosis
What species is affected by Hepatic Fatty Cirrhosis?
Ruminants
4 requirements for photosensitization
- Susceptible skin area
- Photodynamic agent
- UV light with proper wavelength (320 - 380)
- Oxygen
3 plant genera that cause primary photosensitization
- Ammi
- Cooperia
- Thamnosma
What's known as the Dutchman's Britches?
Thamnosma
What is chlorophyll converted to in secondary photosensitization?
Phylloerythryin
Two plant genera that cause secondary photosensitization
- Agave
- Nolina (though can't do it alone)
What plant genera is an obligate Se accumulator?
Astragalus
What's the only plant genera that affects the musculoskeletal system exclusively?
Senna
Lesion of Senna
White Muscle Dz
What exacerbates Senna?
Vitamin E
What does Allium cause? (2)
Cachexia
Anemia
Which species is susceptible to Allium? (2)

Resistant?
- Cattle
- Horses

- Sheep
What does Claviceps cause?
Vasotropic disease
What does Fescue Grass cause in horses? (3)
- Laminitis
- Repro problems
- Agalactia
What does Fescue Grass cause in cattle? (3)
- Fescue foot (if T < 40)
- Symmer syndrome
- Fat necrosis
Two lesions of Juglans
- Laminitis
- Vasotropic Dz
When does Gutierrezia cause abortion?
Last Trimester
DDx for Gutierrezia
Brucella
What does Lupinus cause?
Crooked calves when ingested on days 40 - 70 of gestation
What does Veratrum cause when ingested in gestation? (3)
Day 14: Cyclopian Calf Syndrome

Day 28: Shortened metacarpals/tarsals, cleft palate
Species affected by Veratrum
Sheep
What element interferes with a plant's uptake of Magnesium?
Potassium
Tx of Hypomagnesiumia
Ca Borogluconate with Mg, P, Dex
Tx of Cyanide (3)
- Rhodanese
- Na NO2
- Na ThioSO4
Tx of NO2/NO3 tox
Methylene blue
What does NO2/NO3 tox cause?
Methemoglobinemia
What species is most affected by Na + H2O deprivation, and what does it cause?
Pigs
- Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis
What symptom does Urea cause?
Bonkers (Ammoniated feed syndrome)
Tx of Urea toxicity
Cold vinegar
Toxic agent of urea poisoning
Ammonia
What group does chocolate and caffeine belong to?
Methylxanthines
Three organ systems affected by methylxanthines
- GIT
- CNS
- Heart
MoA of Xylitol
Stimulates beta cells to release insulin
Tx of Xylitol
Bolus of Glc
Concern with Garbage Poisoning
Salmonella
2 genera of Blister Beetles
- Epicuata
- Pyrota
Tx for Blister Beetles
None available.
Two organ systems affected by Blister Beetles
- GIT
- Renal
DDx of aflatoxins
Anticoagulants
Two genera of Aflatoxins
- Aspergillus
- Penicillum
Most susceptible species to Aflatoxins
Dogs
Primary organ affected by Aflatoxins
Liver
What are Tremorgenic toxins found in? (2)
- Walnuts
- Dairy products
Species affected by Tremorgenic toxins
Dogs
MoA of Tricothecene
Inhibits protein synthesis
What causes the 'slobber factor'?
Slaframine
Tx of Slaframine
None
- Px with Atropine
What does Equine leukoencephalomalacia cause in pigs?
Pulmonary signs
What does Equine leukoencephalomalacia cause in horses?
Liquefactive necrosis of white matter
4 organ systems affected by Cyanobacteria
- Neuro
- GIT
- Liver
- Skin
TA of Bufo (toads)
Cardioactive glycosides
Tx of Bufo
Diazepam first, then propranolol second
Which spider genera has a painful bite?
Latrodectus (black widow)
Which spider genera has a non-painful bite?
Loxosceles
MoA of Chlorinated Napthalenes
Blocks conversion of carotene to Vitamin A
MoA of Hexachlorphene
Uncouples oxidative phosphorylation
Lesion of Methylisocyanate
Strong produce of pulmonary edema
3 organs affected by polytetrafluoronate
- Liver
- Kidney
- Air sacs
MoA of H2S
Stop cytochrome oxidase
Organ affected by CO2
CNS depression
How does Methane kill?
Asphyxiation
Tx of CO
O2
What lesion does CO cause?
Bright red blood (carboxyhemoglobin)
MoA of CO
Prevents unloading of O2 from Hgb
- Shifts O2 dissociation curve to left
TA of Ethylene Glycol
Glycolic acid
Cause of death with ethylene glycol
Systemic acidosis
Two Tx of Ethylene glycol
- Ethanol
- Chlormethopriazole
What are phenols toxic to?
Cats neuro system
What is coal tar toxic to? (2)
- Dogs
- Pigs
Tx of Coal tar
Aflatoxin