• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/64

Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are proteins digested by?
Proteases
What are peptides degraded by?
Enterocytes with peptidases
5 alpha-globulins
- Haptoglobin
- a1-lipoprotein
- a1-antitrypsin
- a1-antichymotrypsin
- a2-macroglobulin
6 B proteins
- Transferrin
- B-lipoprotein
- Complement C3
- IgM
- IgA
- Fibrinogen
What are alpha globulins synthesized by?
Hepatocytes
What does alpha-lipoprotein do?
Transports cholesterol (found in HDL)
What does alpha-antitrypsin do? (2)
- Inactivates proteases
- Anti-inflammatory
What does alpha-antichymotrypsin do? (2)
- Inactivates proteases
- Anti-inflammatory
What does alpha-macroglobulin do? (2)
- Inactivates proteases
- Anti-inflammatory
What does haptoglobin do?
Scavenges and transports free hemoglobin
What are beta globulins synthesized by?
Hepatocytes
Function of transferrin
Binds and transports iron
Function of B-lipoproteins
Transport triglycerides and cholesterol
What are B-lipoproteins found in?
LDL
What are a-lipoproteins found in?
HDL
Two functions of complement protein C3
- Pro-inflammatory
- Chemotaxis
Where is IgM made?
Plasma cells
Where is IgA made?
Plasma cells
What protein is not found in the serum?
Fibrinogen
Where is IgG made?
Plasma cells
What is a C-reactive protein?
Positive acute phase protein
Two tube types used to collect serum
- Clot tube
- Red tube
3 components of the blood consumed during clotting
- Fibrinogen
- Factor V
- Factor VIII
What is the preferred sample for protein electrophoresis?
Serum
Which form of blood has fibrinogen present? (2)
- Whole
- Plasma
What species is a refractometer inaccurate in?
Avian
3 sources of interference with a refractometer
- False increase with high BUN or Glc
- False increase with lipemia
- Hemolysis makes reading the line difficult
What does a albumin:globulin ratio of <0.5 mean?
- Albumin decrease
- Globulin increase
What does a albumin:globulin ratio of >1.5 mean?
Globulin increase
Normal albumin:globulin ratio
0.5 - 1.5
Two causes of hyperalbuminemia
- Dehydration
- Neoplasia
Primary cause of hyperalbuminemia
Dehydration
What happens to the albumin:globulin ration in dehydration?
Nothing; albumin and globulin increase at the same amount
Three causes of hypoalbuminemia
- Decreased protein intake
- Hepatic insufficiency
- Loss of albumin
How does protein intake or protein malnutrition appear on the animal?
As a state of cachexia
How much of the liver must be affected to cause a hypoalbuminemia due to hepatic insufficiency?
> 80%
5 conditions a hepatic insufficiency may be secondary to
- Cirrhosis
- Chronic hepatic necrosis
- Inflammation
- Severe atrophy due to portosystemic shunt
- Neoplasia
Globulin level in a hypoalbuminemia due to hepatic insufficiency
Normal or decreased
In a hypoalbuminemia due to hepatic insufficiency, what happens to:
Liver enzymes
Bile acids
Ammonia concentration
BUN
Cholesterol
- Liver enzymes: Increased
- Bile acids: increased
- Ammonia concentration: increased
- BUN: decreased
- Cholesterol: decreased
5 causes of a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin
- Protein losing nephropathy
- Protein losing enteropathy
- Hemorrhage
- Exudation from large surfaces (burns, pleuritis, intestinal lesions, etc.)
- Loss of lymph
Globulin level in a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin as a result of a protein losing nephropathy
WNL
What should you see in the urine in a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin as a result of a protein losing nephropathy?
Proteinuria
What should the protein:creatinine ratio be in the urine in a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin as a result of a protein losing nephropathy?
Increased
4 conditions that a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin as a result of a protein losing enteropathy is secondary to
- SI mucosal disease
- Lymphatic disease
- Inflammatory exudation
- Intestinal parasitism leading to blood loss
Globulin level in a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin as a result of a protein losing enteropathy
Decreased but can be WNL if there is a concurrent antigenic stimulation
Globulin level in a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin as a result of hemorrhage
Decreased
Globulin level in a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin as a result of exudatino from a large surface
Decreased
Globulins in a hypoalbuminemia due to a loss of albumin as a result of a loss of lymph
Decreased
4 causes of hyperglobulinemia
- Dehydration
- Chronic AG stimulation
- B-lymphocyte neoplasia
- Acute phase response
3 causes of a hypoglobulinemia
- Failure of passive transfer
- Severe Combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
- Selective deficiencies of immunoglobulins
Albumin levels in a hypoglobulinemia due to a failure of passive transfer
WNL
What level of protein:fibrinogen indicates an inflammatory process?
<10 protein:fibrinogen ratio
What level of protein:fibrinogen indicates a dehydration?
>15 protein:fibrinogen ratio
2 primary causes of hyperfibrinogenemia
- Inflammation
- Dehydration
What is the best way to detect a hypofibrinogenemia?
Thrombin Time Test
- Elevated
Most common cause of a hypofibrinogenemia
Excess consumption of fibrinogen
Two differentials for decreased globulins
- Failure of passive transfer
- IgG deficiency
Differential for a broad increase in globulins
- Chronic inflammation (parasitism, dental disease, FIP)
Differential for increased alpha globulins
Acute inflammation
Differential for increased beta globulins (broad increase) (3)
- Inflammation
- Acute liver disease
- Nephrotic syndrome
Differential for increased beta globulins (sharp increase)
Synthesis of an IgM or IgA paraprotein by B-lymphocyte neoplasia
Differential for increased gamma globulins (broad [polychronal] increase)
Chronic infections/inflammatory disease (IE FIP, Ehrlichiosis, demodicosis)
Differential for increased beta globulins (sharp [monoclonal] increase)
- B-lympocyte neoplasia
Major contributing factor to colloid osmotic/oncotic pressure
Albumin