Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/35

Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
PTH effect on Phosphorous
Promotes excretion in kidney
Vitamin D effect on Phosphorous
Promotes absorption in GIT
Decreases excretion in kidney
Growth hormone effect on Phosphorous
Increases renal tubular resorption
Calcitonin effect on Phosphorous
Promotes renal excretion
Main mechanism for a hyperphosphatemia (3)
- Decreased urinary excretion
- Increased absorption from intestine
- Shift from IC to EC
Primary cause of a hyperphosphatemia
Decreased GFR
What does the degree of hyperphosphatemia parallel?
Azotemia
Why might a young animal have a hyperphosphatemia?
Increased GH levels
How does a hypoparathyroidism cause hyperphosphatemia?
PTH normally causes Phosphorous secretion
How can severe cell lysis cause hyperphosphatemia?
Release of IC phosphorous
How can an acidosis cause hyperphosphatemia?
Increased cellular production of PO4 due to anaerobic glycolysis and ATP degradation
Mechanisms for hypophosphatemia (3)
- Increased renal excretion
- Decreased intestinal absorption
- Shift from EC to IC
Three causes of increased renal excretion of phosphorous
- Hyperparathyroidism
- Prolonged diuresis
- Damaged proximal renal tubular cells
3 causes of decreased intestinal absorption of phosphorous
- Intestinal malabsorption or prolonged anorexia
- Administration of phosphorous binding agents
- Hypovitaminosis D
2 causes of hypophosphatemia due to cellular shifting
- Respiratory alkalosis
- Hyperinsulinism
How does insulin cause a hypophosphatemia?
Insulin promotes uptake of phosphorous into the cell for glucose phosphorylation
3 'other' causes of hypophosphatemia
- Milk fever
- Renal failure in horses
- Artifact
Two blood states that can cause hypophosphatemia artifactually
- Hyperbilirubinemia
- Hemolysis
What is the most common elemental abnormality in ICU patients?
Magnesium
How is magnesium and calcium related?
Hypomagnesium can create a refractory hypocalcemia
What does magnesium regulation depend on? (2)
- Kidneys
- GIT
Which hormone is most responsible for regulation of hypophosphatemia?
There is no primary hormone in regards to Mg regulation
4 hormones that stimulate Mg absorption
- PTH
- ADH
- Glucagon
- Calcitonin
How does PTH affect Mg levels? (2)
Increase
- Increases intestinal absorption
- Increases renal and bone resorption
How does Vitamin D affect Mg levels?
Overall, it decreases Mg levels
- Increases intestinal absorption but increases renal excretion as well as decreasing [PTH]
Effect of Thyroxine and Aldosterone on Mg levels
Decrease
- Decrease due to increase of urinary and fecal excretion
What should not be used in Mg containers during measurement?
EDTA
3 pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypermagnesemia
- Decreased GFR
- Artifactual
- Excess administration
How does hemolysis affect magnesium levels in blood?
Increases
4 causes of hypomagnesemia
- GI disorders
- Renal loss
- Cellular shifting
- Hypoalbuminemia
Primary cause of hypermagnesemia
Decreased GFR
Primary cause of hypomagnesemia
Decreased absorption from GIT
Four causes of increased renal loss of Mg
- Diuresis
- Ketonuria (Ketones bind Mg)
- Loop diuretics
- Tubular damage
5 'other' causes of Hypomagnesemia
- Iatrogenic
- Cantharidin
- Horses with colic or endotoxemia (causes shift of Mg into cells)
- Grass tetany
- Growing calves
Why are growing calves predisposed to Hypomagnesemia?
Generally not enough Mg present in milk