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31 Cards in this Set

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What city was destroyed by an Earthquake in 1923?
Tokyo.
What happened to the democratic reforms of the 1920s in Japan.
They were cut short by the Great Depression and the rise of Japanese ultranationalists.
In the 1930s, who had almost complete control over the government of Japan?
The military established almost complete control over the government.
What happened to political protest in Japan in the 1930s?
Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media grew. Navy and army officers occupied most government offices, including the one of the prime minister.
In 1931, the Japanese military created a phony incident to invade and occupy What part of China (Northeastern China) rich with industrial resources?
Manchuria.
In 1937, Japan launched the second Sino-Japanese War. What does the Sino stand for?
Chinese.
They were now being fought by Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek).
In 1940, the U.S. and Britain decided to boycott sales of what to Japan?
Oil, scrap iron, etc.
Why did Japan seize territory in Southeast Asia?
These nations were resource rich and were colonies of the Western European nations who were engaged in World War II.
In 1940, the U.S. and Britain decided to boycott sales of what to Japan?
Oil, scrap iron, etc.
What did the Japanese do to secure their building of a Pacific Rim Empire on December 7th, 1941?
The Japanese led a sneak attack on Pearl Harbor.
It backfired, because it brought the USA into the war.
What battle was the turning point for the United State in the Pacific theater after two years of losses?
The Battle of Midway.
What new weapon did President Truman learn of after FDR's death?
The Atomic Bomb.
The Manhattan Project.
What choices faced Truman in 1945?
A conventional invasion force with high casualties (loss of US lives) vs. dropping the atomic bomb.
Why did Truman drop the A bomb?
To save American lives.
To shorten the war.
To stop what appeared to be a fanatical enemy.
What weapons obliterated Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the summer of 1945?`
The Atomic Bomb.
What weapons were used to flatten Tokyo and Japan's other industrial cities?
Incendiary (fire) bombs.
These bombs, dropped in large quantities, were devastating and flattened the landscape.
Who had to go to the Japanese military and beg them to surrender?
Emperor Hirohito.
He also had to speak on the radio to let the Japanese people know they had surrendered.
Who took control of Japan during the Allied Occupation?
General Douglas MacArthur.
Sometimes referred to as the "American Shogun".
What were MacArthur's chief goals during the Occupation?
To end Japanese offensive fighting forces and to make Japan a stable democracy.
What were the major changes in the 1946 constitution of Japan (replacing the Meiji constitution of 1889)?
The emperor lost all effective power, he is not longer worshipped as a god, and he is a figurehead (purely symbolic).

Sovereign (political) power lies with the people.

Checks and Balances: legislature, executive and judiciary.

Article 9 (see next question)
What did Article 9 in the Japanese constitution of 1946 say about war and offense forces?
It prohibited Japan ever again to lead a war or maintain an army.
A small defensive force was permitted. Recently (1999), the U.S. has pressured Japan to provide more of its defenses, due to the end of the Cold War and the expense of maintaining U.S. troops there. Today Japan spends about 6% of its budget on defense. Many Japanese are against war, especially in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
What changes for women have occurred in the 1946 Japan Constitution?
Women have equal rights and can vote. They have equal opportunities for education and jobs.
However, many women still quit their job when they marry to have children. There is still a strong, patriarchal pressure in Japan.
What is Japanese education like?
It is one of the most competitive education systems in the world. Children attend school 6 days a week and attend cram school after the regular school day in high school. They take a week of finals to win a place in Japan's most competitive universities.
Who gave Japan a great deal of aid to rebuild after World War II?
The United States.
It is now our trade partner and trade competitor. It is also an ally.
What sorts of changes did the Japanese use in their industries after World War II?
They turned to high tech industries and robotics. They listened to American Edward Deming about assembly lines and management techniques.
They listened so well that they out-perform our companies in some industries now.
What benefits do the workers in Japan's top corporations have?
(1) free housing in company apartment complex (2) employee group vacations (3) lifetime employment - guaranteed job security until retirement (4) medical care provided by company doctors (5) they are encouraged to give input to "quality circles" that meet in the company and make decisions.
Recent economic problems have forced the Japanese companies to pull back on lifetime employment.
Japan's economy is second in GNP only to what nation?
The USA
What does Japan export and import?
Japan's exports are cars, electronic devices, computers. (the U.S. buys 25% of all Japanese exports; others include Taiwan, China/HongKong, South Korea and Singapore). The most important import goods are raw materials such as oil, foodstuffs, and wood. Major suppliers are the USA, China, S. Korea, Indonesia, and Australia.
Imports: Japan has a large surplus in its export/import balance.
What is Japan's most important crop?
Rice.
Terracing on hillsides increases the amount produced each year.
What problems has Japan had in recent decades?
(1) the issue of whether to have a defensive force again; (2) scandals among the Prime Ministers and Japan's Liberal Democratic Party; (3) recent economic problems as other Pacific Rim nations develop their economies.
What was the main political party of Japan until a few years ago?
The Liberal Democratic Party.