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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sterilization
the removal of all life forms especially bacterial spores
disinfection
a chemical ward used to kill pathogenic microorganisms on a lfeless object such as a tabletop
antiseptic
a chemical used to kill pathogenic microorganisms on a living object such as the surface of the human body
bacteriocidal
an agent that kills bacteria
bacteriostatic
an agent that preventes the multiplication of bacteria without killing them
sepsis
contamination of an object by microorganisms
aseptic
free of microorganisms
sanitize
to reduce microbial populations to a safe level as determined by public health statndards
degerm
to mechanically remove organisms from a surface
fungicidal
an agent that kills fungi
virucidal
an agent that kills viruses
sporicidal
an agent that kills bacterial spores
germicidal
an agent that kills microorganisms
chlorine:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: chlorine gas sodium hypochorite chloramines
mechanism: protein oxidation membrane leakage
application: water treat skin antisepsis equipment spray food process
limit: inactivated by organic matter objectionable taste and odor
spectrum: broad variety of bacteria fungi protozoa viruses
iodine:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: tincture of iodine iodophors
mechanism: halogenates tyrosine in proteins
application: skin antisepsis food processing preoperative preparation
limit: inactivated by organic matter objectionable taste and odor
spectrum: broad variety of bacteria fungi protozoa viruses
phenol:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: cresols trichlosan hexachorophene hexylresorcinol chlorhexidine
mechanism: coagulates proteins disrupts cell membranes
application: general preservatives skin antisepsis with detergent
limit: toxic to tissues disagreeable odor
spectrum: gram positive bacteria some fungi
mercury:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: mercuric chloride merthiolate metaphen
mechanism: combines with -SH groups in proteins
application: skin antiseptics disinfectants
limit: inactivated by organic matter toxic to tissues slow acting
spectrum: broad variety of bacteria fungi protozoa viruses
copper:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: copper sulphate
mechanism: combines with proteins
application: algicide in swimming pools municipal water supplies
limit: inactivated by organic matter
spectrum: algae some fungi
silver:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: silver nitrate
mechanism: binds proteins
application: skin antiseptic eyes of newborns
limit: skin irritation
spectrum: organisms in burned tisue gonococci
alcohol:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: ethyl alcohol (70%)
mechanism: denatures proteins dissolves lipids dehydrating agent application: instrument disinfectant skin antiseptic
limit: precleaning necessary skin irritation
spectrum: vegetative bacterial cells fungi protozoa viruses
formaldehyde:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: formaldehyde gas formalin
mechanism: reacts w/functional groups in proteins and nucleic acids
application: embalming vaccine production gaseous sterilant
limit: poor penetration allergenic tissue toxic neutralize organic matter
spectrum: broad variety of bacteria fungi protozoa viruses
glutaraldehyde:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: glutaraldehyde
mechanism: reacts w/functional groups in proteins and nucleic acids
application: sterilization of surgical supplies
limit: unstable toxic to skin
spectrum: all microorganisms including spores
ethylene oxide:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: ethylene oxide gas
mechanism: reacts w/functional groups in proteins and nucleic acids
application: sterilize instruments equipment heat-sensitive objects
limit: explosive toxic to skin requires constant humidity
spectrum: all microorganisms including spores
chlorine dioxide:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: chloriine dioxide gas
mechanism: reacts w/functional groups in proteins and nucleic acids
application: santizes equipment rooms buildings
limit: explosive
spectrum: all microorganisms including spores
hydrogen peroxide:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: hydrogen peroxide
mechanism: creates aerobic environment oxidizes protein groups application: wound treatment
limit: limited use
spectrum: anaerobic bacteria
cationic detergents:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: commercial detergents
mechanism: dissolve lipids in cell membranes
application: industrial sanitization skin antiseptic disinfectant
limit: neutralized by soap
spectrum: broad variety of microorganisms
triphenylmethane:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: malachite green crystal violet
mechanism: react with cytoplasmic components
application: wounds skin infection
limit: residual stain
spectrum: staphylococci some fungi gram+ bacteria
acridine dyes:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: acriflavine proflavine
mechanism: react with cytoplasmic components
application: skin infection
limit: residual stain
spectrum: staphylococci gram positive bacteria
acids:
agent
mechanism
application
limit
spectrum
agent: benzoic, salicylic, undecylinic, lactic, propionic acids
mechanism: alter pH
application: skin infections food preservatives
limit: skin irritation
spectrum: many bacteria and fungi