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12 Cards in this Set

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direct flame
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: a few seconds
instrument: flame
object: all microorganisms
example: laboratory instruments
comment: object must be disposable or heat tolerant
hot air
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: 160 C for two hours
instrument: oven
object: bacterial spores
example: glassware, powders, oily substances
comment: not useful for fluid materials
boiling water (veg)
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: 100 C for ten minutes
instrument: boiling water
object: vegetative microorganisms
example: wide variety of objects
comment: total immersion and precleaning necessary
boiling water (bac)
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: 100 C for over two hours
instrument: boiling water
object: bacterial spores
example: wide variety of objects
comment: total immersion and precleaning necessary
pressurized steam
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: 121 C for fifteen minutes at 15 lb/in
instrument: autoclave
object: bacterial spores
example: instruments, surgical materials, solutions and media
comment: broad application in microbiology
fractional sterilization
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: 30 minutes/day for three successive days
instrument: Arnold sterilzer
object: bacterial spores
example: materials not sterilized by other methods
comment: long process, sterilization not assured
pasteurization
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: 62.9 C for 30 minutes/ 71.6 C for 15 seconds
instrument: pasteurizer
object: pathogenic microorganisms
example: dairy products
comment: sterilization not achieved
hot oil
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: 160 C for one hour
instrument: hot oil
object: bacterial spores
example: instruments
comment: rinsing necessary
filtration
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: entrapment in pores
instrument: berkefeld filter / membrane filter
object: all microorganisms
example: fluids
comment: many adaptations
ultraviolet light
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: 265nm energy
instrument: UV light
object: all microorganisms
example: surface and air sterilization
comment: not useful in fluids
X rays / Gamma rays
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: short wave length energy
instrument: generator
object: all microorganisms
example: heat-sensitive materials
comment: possible toxic chemicals
ultrasonic vibrations
condition
instrument
object
example
comment
condition: high-frequency sound waves
instrument: sonicator
object: all microorganisms
example: fluids
comment: few practical applications