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42 Cards in this Set

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bottom line of HF
ventricles cannot fill and eject properly

its all about cardiac output
initiating event of HF
80% related to ischemia from MI
stroke volume =
ejection fraction
preload
how much blood is in the heart right before it contracts
transesophageal echo
put camera down throat with tube
they can see the heart
gives clear picture of ventricular function
normal ejection fraction
70%
MAP
mean arterial pressure

minimum amount of flow needed to perfuse organs
^MAP=
^stroke volume
^HR
^total periphreal resistance

baroreceptors monitor it
TNF is released when..
low flow
apoptosis happens with...
heart failure
necrosis happens when..
it is a direct response
apoptosis happens...
indirect process like HF
endothelin is a vaso constrict/dialate?
constrict

targets endothelium in blood vessels
bradykinin does what to the blood vessels
dilates
why are vasodilators diuretics
body senses better flow and decreases aldosterone which will decrease Na and water retention!
^ in BNP there is an issue with...
heart failure
when ANP is released HR will
go down
when ANP is released the venous system will..
relax and dilate
during HF ventricle muscles..
dilate and are unable to contract
systolic HF is when the EF is <...
40%
diastolic HF is symptomatic with EF >
40%
symptoms of left sided HF will be based in...
pulmonary
pulmonary edema clinical manifestations
pink frothy sputum
right sided HF blood backs up..
in the body
s/s right sided HF
liver congestion
most common cause of right sided HF
left sided HF
why give diuretics HF
help tolerate excersize programs
ace inhibitors side effects
cough
light headedness
how long does it take for ace to work?
3 months
angioedema
edema in the mucus membranes

problem when it effects organs
beta blockers
cause decrease in contractility
be more specific: cardio selective
start low dose
what does Dig do?
positive inotrope
increases contractility
hypokalemia can increase/decrease toxicity of dig
increase
alpha is all about
constriction
beta is all about
contraction
ARBs
angio I goes to II
ARBs block II's function
ARBs given to people who cant tolerate ACE inhib

ACE still best intervention
what is the blood pressure measuring
the force of the blood pushing against the side of its container, the vessel well
what is the pulse pressure
the difference betwween the systolic and diastolic and reflects stroke volume
what are factors influencing blood pressure
age
gender
race
diurnal rhythm
weight
exercise
emotions
stress
what is a diurnal rhythym
a dily cycle of peak and trough in bp

bp is high late afternoon and is low early morning
how does age effect bp
gradually rises as age rises
the level of bp is determined by 5 factors
cardiac output
afterload
volume of circulating fluid
viscosity
elasticy of vessel walls