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24 Cards in this Set

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About how many months after infection does the body clear a surface antigen?

When does the antibody to the surface antigen become available for testing?

Consequence?
6 months after infection to clear

6.5-7 months for antibody to surface antigen to present

therefore surface antigen cannet be tested until in the WINDOW OF 6 - 6.5/7 months!

(favorite test question!)
Risk factors for Hep C?
1)previous blood transfusion (b/f 1992)

2)IV drug use/sexual contact

3)Tatoos
What % of Hep C patients are asymptomatic
85%

...only 5% develop cirrhosis of which 15% develop hepatocellular carcinoma
HIV-II is similar to HIV-I but with a ____ ?
long latent period
T/F AIDS can be transmitted by delivery or lactation?
T

..also blood, secretions, sexual contact & IV drug abuse
AIDS tecnicalled defined by what either of what 2 critera?
1)absolute CD4+ count of <200

2)AIDS defing illness REGARLESS of CD4 count
Anti-HIV antibodies can be detected how long after exposure?

Is there a faster option?
Anti-HIV Ab = 3 weeks to 6 months

p24 antigen = 16 days
Nucleic Acid testing = 11 days
What are the 3 phases of AIDS? Describe?
1)Seroconversion: flu-like illness, frequenly unrecognized; HIV antigen is detectable but anti-HIV Ab not formed yet

2)Latent: no symptoms, CD4 count can be well over 200 and be stable for years w/out treatment

3)Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy: CD4<200...and you're screwed
Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus

HTLV-1 causes what?

HTLV-2?
HTLV-1: T-cell leukemia, lymphooma and tropical spastic paraparesis; birth/sexual contact in ajpan, caribbeam, sub-Shaharn African (but not Brazil!!...phew!!)

HTLV-II: tropical paraparesis; IV DRUG USE!!

Infection is life-long, but only 4% of those infected develop lifelong complications
What may give a false positive for HTLV?
Influenza immunization
T/F CMV is a RNA virus
F, CMV is DNA virus
CMV Infections in immunocompentent persons produces what kind of symptoms?
only flu-like illness; most infecions go unnoticed

in AL, 85% of people over 70 are serologically positive, hard to find a CMV negative donor
Congenital CMV causes?
deafness, neurologic deficits, liver/spleen enlargement
immunosupressed CMV exposure cuaes?
Pneumonitis, hepatitis, meningitis, colitis

Can be life threatening, particularly pneumonitis and menningitis
Rare neurological dz with progressive ataxia, demnetia, coma & death
Creutzfeldt Jacob Dissease

caused by PRIONS

LONG LATENT PERIOD (~30 years)

NO SEROLOGICAL SCREENING TEST

NO TREATMENT
Bacterial contamination is most common with what part of the blood?
Platelets
How many whole blood units are needed for 1 unit of platelets?
6
Platelets are most commonly contaminated with _____ organisms
gram-positive
RBCs are most commonly contaminated with _____ organisms
gram-negative (the produce endotoxins)

gram-negative sepsis has 70% mortality; signs: fever, chills, rigors, & shock
Why is the risk of syphilis from blood transusion low?
spirochees cannot live long in sotrage conditions
Are there serological tests performed for malaria on donated units?
No,, just screened by questioning
Risk of TRALI highest with transfusion of what?
platelets
1/2 life of platelets?
5 days, so testing prioritized and completed by 72 hours, giving a total of 3 days of self-life
Most morbidity and moratality of blood transfusions are due to what?
administration of wrong product to wrong patient