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28 Cards in this Set

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-normal anatomy and physiology & landmarks of the breast
milk producing glands, ducts, nipple, subcut and retromammary fat, coopers ligaments
Lymph drainage: 4 quadrants
1. central axillary nodes
2. pectoral (anterior)
3. subscapular
4. lateral
What are tanner's 5 stages of development?
1. preadolescent
2. breast bud stage
3. breast and areola enlarge
4. secondary mound over the breast
5. mature breasts
Describe the differences in an aging female's breast vs. young woman
breast glandular tissue atrophy. decrease in size and elasticity (droop and sag). Makes lump in breast easier to feel.
What are some developmental issues with the breasts?
supernumerary nipple (extra nipple)
What is mastalgia?
pain of the breast. can occurs with trauma, inflammation, infection, and benign breast disease
What is colostrum?
thick yellow fluid that is precursor to milk. present in pregnant women after 4th month of pregnancy.
Black girls will begin puberty (before/after) white girls?
before by 1-1.5 years.
What are items to note about the nipples?
1. discharge
a.color
b. odor
c. consistency
2. inverted nipples
a. how long has person had it
What questions do you ask for breast health?
pain? lumps? nipple discharge? axillary LN enlargement? Current Medications? Breast self exams? Clinical breast exam? Mammography? family hx? alcohol? high fat diet? physical activity? late menopause? smoking? previous breast surgeries, reporductive hx?
What are the breast inspection positions?
YMCA:
1. sitting with arms at side
2. arms overhead
3. hands pressed on hips
4. arms extended straight overhead as client leans forward
What should you watch for during the breast inspection (YMCA positions)?
1. Size symmetry
2. Shape
3. color
4. skin surface
(dimpling=bad, symmetry, smooth in shape, pink color)
What should you watch for during the nipple inspection?
size, color, shape, discharge, texture (inverted, nipples at same line when raise arms)
Describe technique of breast palpation?
use flat pads of 3 fingers. never pick up fingers. top of breast to bra line. include tail of spence
divide breast into 4 quadrants. --where do most breast cancers occur?
Upper outer
Gynecomastia?
man boobs. can be seen in men with prostate cancer getting hormones
breast cancer is worst in what race of women and why?
African american women. diagnosed later and more aggressive tumors (possibly)
What is fibrocystic breast disease--
breast wax and waynes with menstraul cycle.
ACS recommends that women start mammograms at what age and how often should they have them?-
-40 years old have one year mammos.
What is fibrocystic breast dz?
have lumpier breast--harder to find cancerous lumps, hyperplasia (change in normal breast tissue)
What are modifiable factors that affect breast health?
birth control pills, smoking, alcohol, alcohol intake, high amounts of estrogen, estrogen replacement threapy, decreased exercised, increased fats, smoking.
What is P'orange-
edema.
What are Cooper's ligaments--
fibrous bands extending vertically from the surface to attach on the chest wall muscles--support breast tissues-they become contracted in breast cancer which produce pits or dimples in the overlying skin.
During the breast exam:
even _____ is expected

Abnormal findings in color would be ----, areas of _____,bulging or d_____.
A fine blue vascular network is visible normally during ______--abnormal to have blue in non-_____-women

Normally no edema is present. Abnormal would be "pig-skin" or "orange peel" peau d'orange
even color is expected

Abnormal findings in color would be hyperpigmentation.

note any areas of redness,bulging or dimpling.
A fine blue vascular network is visible normally during pregnancy--abnormal to have blue in non-pregnant women

Normally no edema is present. Abnormal would be "pig-skin" or "orange peel" peau d'orange
If you feel lump or mass note WHICH characteristics:
1. location
2. size
3. shape
4. consistency
5. movable
6. distinctness
7. nipple
8. note the skin over the lump
9. tenderness
10. lymphadenopathy
What is mastitis-
uncommon; an inflamm mass before abscess formation. usually in a single quadrant. area is red, swollen , tnender very hot and hard. woman will have headache, malaise, fever, chills, and sweating and flulike symptoms
What is Paget's disease of the breast-
early lesion has unilateral, clear, yellow discharge and dry scaling crusts, friable at nipple apex. Spreads outward to areola with erythematous halo on areola and crusted, eczematous, retracted nipple.
What is breast fixation?
asymmetry, distortion or decreased mobility of breasts with elevated arm maneuver.