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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is the total amount of fluid in an average 70 kg adult?
40 litres (60% of total body mass)
what are the two compartments of extracellular fluid?
blood plasma and interstitial fluid
what is the predominant cation in the intracellular fluid?
K+
what is the predominant cation in the interstitial fluid?
Na+
why will a reduction in blood volume result in a reduction in interstitial and intracellular fluid volume?
because of the rapid exchange between the different fluid compartments
what effect does reduction in blood volume have on rate of venous return and cardiac output?
decreased
what are some consequences of tissue ischaemia?
increase in production of lactic acid, causing an increase in concentration of H+ ions (acidosis), depression of cardiac muscle, further reduction in cardiac output, release of toxins in intestine, greater risk of blood clotting in small vessels
what is the mechanism that restores blood pressure?
baroreceptor reflex
t/f... most of the body water is locate in the ECF compartment
false, most is intracellular
which type of vessel is responsible for most of the total resistance?
arterioles
what is perfusion pressure?
mean arterial pressure minus pressure in the veins
what are the two factors that determine the perfusion of any body region?
mean arterial pressure and vascular resistance
what do baroreceptors respond to?
stretch
what effect does the baroreceptor reflex have on arterioles?
constriction
how is resistance related to radius?
resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the radius
where does the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde occur?
liver
how does carbonation increase the rate of ethanol absorption?
by relaxation of the pyloric sphincter thus increasing the rate of gastric emptying
what does the acronym FLAGS stand for?
F-feeding back
L-listening
A-advice
G-goals
S-strategies
what is a pathological fracture?
fracture following a disease process that has weakened a bone so that its strength is reduced and normal forces of movement and muscle activity are not tolerated
what are the three principles of fracture management?
reduction, immobilisation and restoration of function
why doesn't vasoconstriction occur in coronary or cerebral vascular beds in response to severe haemorrhage?
coronary and cerebral blood vessels have very sparse sympathetic innervation
what controls blood flow to coronary and cerebral beds?
local metabolic factors (autoregulation)
how is the loss of plasma proteins following haemorrhage compensated for?
increased hepatic synthesis over 3-4 days
what is Erikson's theory of adolescence?
identity v role confusion
what percentage of 16-17 years olds have the ability to use abstract thought, theoretical notions (formal operations)?
35%
how does Erikson describe adulthood (20-35 years)?
intimacy v isolation
what is the Frank-Starling Law?
the greater the filling of the ventricle, the greater will be the force of contraction
what is the gain of a control system?
gain=compensation/error
what gives bone its compressive strength?
calcium and phosphate (as hydroxapatite crystal)
what are osteoblasts derived from?
mesenchymal stem cell
what are osteoclasts derived from?
haemopoietic stem cell
what are osteocytes?
osteoblasts embedded in bone matrix
in an osteoblast, what separates the rER from the nucleus?
large and active Golgi apparatus
what is the mineralisation front?
edge of advancing calcification
what is an osteoid seam?
maturing collagen (type I) between the osteoblast and mineralisation front
what do osteoclasts secrete?
acid and proteolytic enzymes
what do osteoclasts do?
dissolve mineral and degrade protein, release embedded growth factors
what gives bone its tensile strength?
collagen
what non-collagenous proteins are present in the bone matrix?
alkaline phosphatase, proteoglycans, growth factors
what is the name for the tunnel dug by osteoclasts in cortical bone?
cutting cone
what is the outer surface of a tooth?
enamel
what is the name for the bone surrounding the root of a tooth?
alveolar bone
which cells lay down enamel?
ameloblasts
which cells lay down dentine?
odontoblasts
what is responsible for the resistance to acid attack of enamel?
very dense matrix of closely packed collagen, hydroxyapatite crystals